目前日期文章:200711 (18)

瀏覽方式: 標題列表 簡短摘要
a bunch of 一群 一堆
a piece of shit 一拋屎
a stream of abuse 一頓罵
a tough man 難對付的人
aint = aren’t
album 歌曲專集
an awesome big promise 很大的諾言
are you going to the movies? 你打算去看電影嗎?
are you mad? 你生氣拉?
asshole 屁眼
awesome 另人敬畏的

back off 讓開!
badass 壞蛋
bah bye 再見
be good 聽話
be off 走開
be pissed off 被惹惱 I've been pissed.(I've been pissed off) 我被若惱了。
be quick 快!
be quiet 安靜
belly button 肚臍眼
bite me 狠我把。(用得意的語氣)
black folks = nigger 黑人 ,用black people 也行
blue 色情
brb , be right back 馬上回來
bullshit. 胡說
butt, ass 屁股

can you handle this? 你行嗎?
can’t take it 招架不住,受不了
cause ,because, cuz 因為
cell phone 手機
chatroom 聊天室 ,不是chatting room啊
come on 快,來嘛~~,別那樣了,
computer freak 非常喜歡電腦得人,精通電腦得人
cool 酷
crap up 廢話(im craping up)我在廢話
cut the crap 別廢話
cute 可愛(美國人不長說“帥(handsome)" 用CUTE代替)可以說 a handsome car.
cutie 可愛的人

damn 媽的,倒楣!
damn it 他XX的
did I make myself clear? 我是否使你明白拉?
did I make myself crystal clear? 比上邊的口氣重
do I know you? = do I have the pleasure of knowing you? 我認識你嗎?
do me a favour 幫幫忙
do you do weed? = do you smoke 吸煙嗎?
don’t be like a kid 別向小孩一樣
don’t be mean about that 別太沒意思了啊
don’t be so sure about that 別太肯定
don’t be so sure about yourself 別太自信!
don’t bother 別去麻煩!
don’t fool me 別耍我
don’t get funny with me 別無理
don’t get it 不明白
don’t get smart with me 別耍花樣
don’t know what you are talking about 不知道你在說什麼
don’t lie to me 別給我說謊
dumb ass = stupid = 笨蛋

evil 特別壞的。evil man 壞人
exactly 非常對!正是!

fag = gay 同性戀的人
faggot = stupid = fag
faggot 笨蛋。同性戀
fine 好。有時表示不滿。 你可以!
freak =weird 怪的。
freaky boy 怪男孩
funny shit 有趣的東西
funny 有趣的

gal = girl
gay 同性戀(男) 有的美國男孩不喜歡與同性的人聊。
geeze 天呀!
get a flat tyre 車輪跑氣
get beat up 挨了一頓打,被打了
get high 過癮的感覺
get into such a mess 這麼不幸(指遇到了困難的事)
get it? 明白了嗎?
get me wrong 你冤枉了我!
get on it! 去做。。。把
give it a shot. give it a go. 試一是
go ahead 可以
go to bed! 滾開!
gonna going to 的省寫。 不是 went to 的啊!
gosh = god 上帝呀!我的天呀!!!
got disconnected 掉線拉!
got it! 明白了!
got kicked 被踢拉!
got power outage 停電拉!
gotcha! = got you 抓住你拉!難住你拉!
gotta go do something 要去幹某事拉
gotta go 我得走拉!
grow up 別向小孩一樣
guess what 猜怎麼了?
guy = boy

hang out with 與...出去玩
hang out 出外玩兒
hell yeah! 可不是!太對拉!
hip hop , rock, rap,pop, 說唱,搖滾,說唱,流行歌
hobby 愛好
hold on 等會兒
hold the(your) breath 等等(是讓你先閉嘴的意思)
homo (一種生理活動) =(一種生理活動)ing homo 同性戀混
homo sexual 同性戀的
homo 同性戀的
hook up hook up the mic 插上麥克風
hook up some tickets for somebody 給....免費準備一些票.
how are you doing (or: how you doiin) 你好。
how in the world can he do it to me 他怎麼能這樣對我呢!
how’s your day 今天怎麼樣?
huh??? 什麼?(單獨用的)
hurry up 快!
hurry 快!

I can’t believe it 不感相信
I do whatever I like 我幹我想幹的
I don’t give a shit! 我不在乎
I have no clue,I don’t know,I have no Idea 不知道
I have to think about it 我得考慮
I knew it 我料到拉!我就知道!
I made it. I did it 我成功拉
I read your mind 我就知道你要說什麼
idiot 傻蛋
I’m crazy about her/him 她使我瘋狂。表示你喜歡她。
I’m done 我完拉! 或。作某事做完拉
I’m into you. 我喜歡你
I’m into.... 我喜歡。。。 對。。。趕興趣
I’m just playing!=just kidding 開玩笑的
I’m pretty mad at you 你真讓我生氣!
I’m scared 我怕拉
incompetent loser 無能的笨蛋
it depends 那要看看了。
its not working! 不管用呀!
its up to you 看你了
I've got a favour for you to do 要你幫個忙

jackass 蠢貨
jesus 天呀!
just chilling(just chillin') 休息 (用於回答或解釋)

kick your ass 揍你。踢你的屁股。
kick 踢
kiddo 小孩兒
kind of (kinda) sort of (sorta) 有點兒!
kiss my ass 表示看不起你 , 吻我的屁股

laptop 筆記本電腦
lmaf , laugh my ass off 非常可笑
lol 大笑 = laugh out loud
look! = hey 嘿!
loser 笨蛋

mad at= angry with
mad dog 瘋狗。一般指人
mall 超市 = supermarket
mind your own business 別管閒事
moron 笨蛋
mother (一種生理活動)er 連媽都(一種生理活動)的人
my treat 我請客

native american 純美國人
no offence(no offense) 別生氣 ,(用於事先緊告)
none of your business 沒你的事;別管閒事

oh yeah? 表示懷疑。。。。是麼?
okie dokie , oky doky = ok
oops 哎幼

pain in the ass 著急
pants 褲子
pic 照片
pimp 惡棍。
piss off 滾!
pretty 漂亮,(指人和物) pretty girl. pretty flowers
prick , dick , cock 罵人的。意思是,幾吧
punk 廢物
pussy 逼

retard 聽起來象煙鬼的人
ridiculous 可笑的(貶義詞)
right on = right 對!

she is fine. 她很好看
she is fine. 她身體很好,或人品不錯
she makes me sick 她使我噁心
she's real cute 她真的很可愛,,與really cute 不一樣
shit 拉屎
shit 屎 ,廢話n
shitty day 倒楣的一天。
shoot 說吧
show 節目
shut up . shut the hell up , shut the (一種生理活動) up. 閉嘴
sit back 別管閒事兒
smart 聰明。不用clever
so long 一般不用它。。。意思是:再見
so so 一般
so what 那又怎樣??那又如何??
so 那麼,那,所以
son of a ***** *子養的
stupid 笨蛋
suck up to somebody 拍馬屁
suck 噁心(動詞) you suck! 你噁心!爛

take drug = do drug 吸毒
tell you what 。。。 我給你說啊。。。。
that isn’t funny 不可笑, 不怪
that makes me feel sleepy 那東西讓我想睡覺。
that works 那樣可以
that’s a little strong 有點重了。
that’s your problem 那時你的事,是你自己的問題
the other day 前幾天
try me. 你試試。(A: I'll kill you B: try me) A:我殺了你。B:你試試.

wanna want to 和 wanted to 的省寫
watch it! 注意!
watch your language! 注意你的語言!
weird 怪的
what about it 。。。。怎麼樣?
what are you into?(what you into) 你對什麼感興趣?
what are you up to(what you up to) 最近怎麼樣
what does that mean? 什麼意思?
what the (一種生理活動) ,what the hell , what the hack, (wtf ) 真他XX的!
what’s up 什麼事? 或是: 你好
what’s your asl? 你的,年齡,性別,地點? (聊天用的)
what’s your connection 問你是用56K上網還是用寬頻
what’s your problem? 你怎麼了你?(用於指責)
where are you located? 你在哪?
white folks 白人 , 用white people 也行
who knows , god knows 誰知道呢!
whole bunch of 一大群。一大堆

you ain’t nothing 你什麼也不是
you are scared 你怕拉
you are so mean 你太沒意思拉
you are such a sweetie 你真是個甜心兒
you are sweet 你真好
you don’t have to say nothing 不需要說什麼
you have a nice attitude huh 你架子擺的不錯呀
you know what I’m saying? 明白我說的嗎?
you know what? 你知道嗎?
you wanna fight? 想吵架?

zip it 閉嘴

smileronald 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(1) 人氣()

1. It作先行主語和先行賓語的一些句型
She had said what it was necessary to say.

2. 強調句型
It is not who rules us that is important, but how he rules us.

3. "All+抽象名詞"或"抽象名詞+itself"(very+形容詞)
He was all gentleness to her.

4. 利用詞彙重復表示強調
A crime is a crime a crime.

5. "something of"(much)"to some extent"
"nothing of" (little)。
"anything of ",可譯為"有點","略微等。""譯為毫無","全無"。
"much of"譯為"大有",
"not much of"可譯為"算不上","稱不上",
"little of"可譯為"幾乎無"。
something like譯為"有點像,略似。"
They say that he had no university education, but he seems to be something of a scholar.

6. 同格名詞修飾是指of前後的兩個名詞都指同一個人或物,"of"以及它前面的名詞構一個形容詞短語,以修飾"of"後面的那個名詞。如"her old sharper of a father",可譯為:"她那騙子般的父親"。
Those pigs of girls eat so much.

7. as…as…can(may)be
It is as plain as plain can be.

8. "It is in(with)…as in(with)"
It is in life as in a journey.

9. "as good as…"相等於,就像,幾乎如;實際上,其實,實在。
The merchant as good as promised the orphan boy, that he would adopt him.

10."many as well…as"和"might as well …as" "many as well…as"可譯為"與其……,不如……,更好","以這樣做……為宜","如同……,也可以……"等等。"might as well …as"表示不可能的事,可譯為"猶如……","可與……一樣荒唐","與其那樣不如這樣的好"等等。
One may as well not know a thing at all as know it imperfectly.

11."to make…of"的譯法(使……成為……,把……當作)
I will make a scientist of my son.

12. too…+不定式",not(never)too…+不定式","too…not+不定式
She is too angry to speak.

13. only(not, all, but, never) too …to do so "和"too ready (apt) + to do"結構中,不定式也沒有否定意義,凡是"not","all""but等字後+"too…to,"不定式都失去了否定意義,在"too ready(apt) +to do"結構中,不定式也沒有否定意義。
You know but too yell to hold your tongue.

14. "no more …than…"句型
A home without love is no more a home than a body without a soul is a man.

15. "not so much…as"和"not so much as …"結構,"not so much…as"="not so much as …",其中as有進可換用but rather,可譯為:"與其說是……毋須說是……"。而"not so much as"="without(not)even,"可譯為"甚至……還沒有"。
The oceans do not so much divide the world as unite it .

16. "Nothing is more…than"和"Nothing is so …as"結構,"Nothing is more…than"和"Nothing is so …as"都具有最高級比較的意思,"Nothing I"可換用"no","nobody","nowhere","little","few","hardly","scarcely"等等,可譯為"沒有……比……更為","像……再沒有了","最……"等。
Nothing is more precious than time.

17. "cannot…too…"結構,"cannot…too…"意為"It is impossible to overdo…"或者,即"無論怎樣……也不算過分"。"not"可換用"hardly","scarcely"等,"too"可換用"enough","sufficient"等
You cannot be too careful.

18. "否定+but "結構,在否定詞後面的"but",具有"which not","who not","that not",等等否定意義,構成前後的雙重否定。可譯成"沒有……不是"或"……都……"等
Nothing is so bad but it might have been worse.

19. "否定+until (till)"結構,在否定詞"no","not","never","little","few","seldom"等的後邊所接用的"until/till",多數情況下譯為"直到……才……","要……才……",把否定譯為肯定。
Nobody knows what he can do till he has tried.

20. "not so…but"和"not such a …but"結構,這兩個結構和"否定+but"的結構差不多,不同之點是這兩個結構中的"but"是含有"that…not"意味的連續詞,表示程度。可譯為"還沒有……到不能做……的程度","並不是……不……","無論怎樣……也不是不能……"等。
He is not so sick but he can come to school.

21. "疑問詞+should…but "結構,這個結構表示過去的意外的事,意為"none…but",可譯為"除了……還有誰會……","豈料","想不到……竟是……"等。
Who should write it but himself?

22. "who knows but (that)…"和"who could should…but"結構,這個結構是反問形式,一般意譯為"多半","亦未可知"等等,有時也可直譯。
Who knows but (that) he may go?

23. "祈使句+and"和"祈使句+or"結構,"祈使句+and"表示"If…you…","祈使名+or"表示"if…not…,you。
Add love to a house and you have a home. Aad righteousness to a city and you have a community. Aad truth to a pile of red brick and you have a school.

24. "名詞+and"結構,在這個結構中,名詞等於狀語從句,或表示條件,或表示時間。
A word, and he would lose his temper.

25. "as…,so…"結構,這裡的"so"的意思是"in the same way"(也是如此)。此結構表明兩個概念在程度上和關繫上相似。
As rust eats iron, so care eats the heart.

26. "if any"結構,"if any"和"if ever",意思是"果真有……","即使有……",表示加強語氣。與此類似的還有:"if anything"(如有不同的話,如果稍有區別),"if a day"(=at least,至少)。
There is little, if any, hope.

27. "be it ever(never)so"和"let it be ever(never)so"結構,這裡,"be it"中的"be"是古英語假設語氣的遺留形式,現代英語則使用"let it be"。"ever so"和"never so"都表示同一意思,都表示"very"。
Be it ever so humble (let it be ever so humble), home is home.

28. "the last+不定式"和"the last +定語從詞"結構,這種結構中的"last"意思是"the least likely",用於否定性推論。可譯為"最不大可能的","最不合適的",由原意的"最後一個……"變成"最不可能……的一個"。
He is the last man to accept a bride.

29. "so…that…"句型,這個句型的意思是"如此……,以致於……",但在翻譯成漢語時,許多情況下,並不是一定要譯成"如此……以致於……",而是變通表達其含義。
He ran so fast that nobody could catch him up.

30. "more + than+原級形容詞(副詞)"結構,這是將不同性質加以比較,其中的"more"有"rather"的意思。
It is more than probable that he will fall.

31. "more than +動詞"結構,這種結構表示動詞的程度,可譯為"異常","豈止","十二分地"等。
This more than satisfied me.

32. "good and …"的副詞用法,譯為"非常","很"等。類似還有"nice and …", "fine and …," "lovely and …", "bright and …", "rare and …", "big and …"等,均表示程度。
The apples are good and ripe.

33. "and that"結構,這個"and that"應譯為"而且……",表示對它前面陳述部分的語氣加強,"that"代表前面的整個陳述部分。
Return to your work , and that at once.

34. "at once…and"結構,這個結構譯為"既……又……",起相關連接的作用,相當於"both…and…"。
The novel is at once pleasing and instructive.

35. "in that…"結構,這個結構的意思是"在那一點上(方面)",可譯為"因為"。類似的結構還有"in this…"。
The budget is unrealistic in that it disregards increased costs.

36. "the name notwithstanding"結構,這個結構中"notwithstanding"是介詞,這個介詞可以置前,可以置後,比如也可寫成:"notwithstanding the name"。起讓步狀語的作用。
Some people think of the storage battery as a sort of condenser where electricity is stored.But this is an entirely wrong conception, the name notwithstanding.

37. "Every…not"和"All…not"結構,"Every…not"表示"不見得每個……都是……";"All…not"表示"不見得所有……都是……"的意思。
Every man is not polite, and all are not born gentlemen.

38. "may as well not…as"結構,此結構可譯為"與其……不如不……"。
One may as well not know a thing at all as know it but imperfectly.
39. "have only to …do"結構,此結構表示"只須(消)……就能……"的意思。
We have only to turn to that extraordinary discovery made by Edison to see the significance of it.

40. "not (no) …unless…"句型
No increase in output can be expected unless a new assembly line is installed.

41. "better…than…"句型
Better my life should be ended by their hate, than that hated life should be prolonged to live without your love.

42. "as it were"是一個非常常用的插入語,意思是"好象","可以說"等。
Apiece of iron near a magnet, though apparently separate from it , feels, as it were, the threads of this attachment.

43. 複雜結構,在下面例句中,由於anyone的定語從句過長,把謂語must realize提到定語從句之前。
Though faith and confidence are surely more or lass foreign to my nature, I do not infrequently find myself looking to them to be able, diligent, candid, and even honest. Plainly enough, that is too large an order, as anyone must realize who reflects upon the manner in which they reach public office.

44. "not…any more than…"為:"不能……,正如不能……"。
One cannot learn to sketch and express himself graphically only by reading about it any more than one can learn to swim while standing by the pool.

45. "By that as it may"是"Let it be that as it may"的省略形式,是由"be"引起的另外一種假設結構,意思是"雖然如此,儘管這樣"。
It is said that the nerve poison is the more primitive of the two, that the blood poison is, so to speak, a new product from an improved formula. Be that as it may, the nerve poison does its business with man far more quickly than the blood poison.

46. "if at all"是一個由"if"引起的主謂結構不完整的短句結為"即將……","即使……"等。
I can see only with great difficulty, if at all.

47. 由there引起的句型容易產生複雜的句子結構.
There have been opened up to the vast and excellent science, in which my work is the beginning, ways and means by which other minds more accurate than wine will explore its remote corners.

48. "range from …to…"結構。這是一個常見結構,譯時很多情況下應變通處理,不能完全依靠辭典上的釋義。
Computer applications range from an assembly line completely run by computers to a children toy responding to remote signals.

49. "the way…"結構
I always thought she was a common-sense person who discussed things the way they ought to be discussed.

50. 複雜賓補結構
In recent years, the development of sensitive and accurate measuring equipment has made it possible to measure the acuity of hearing of any individual at different frequencies.

51. 某些分隔結構
1) 動詞短語相關部分被分隔(當"make use of ","take notice of","pay attention to",
等動詞短語變成被動語態時)。
Use is made of solar energy in heating houses.
2)雙重定語引起的分隔。
But there is of culture another view, in which not solely the scientific passion, the sheer desire to see things as they are, natural and proper in an intelligent being, appears as the ground of it.

52. "to be doing…when…"是一個句型,多譯為"某人正在做……時,突然……"。在簡單的句子中容易看出,一旦句子變得複雜一些,可能就不太容易識別這種句型。
She said she and a friend had gone out to dinner that night, and were walking home together at about 10 o'clock, when a "very big, very tall man", accosted them and demanded their purses.

53. "too…to"句型
Then I remembered how often I, too, had been indifferent to the grandeur of each day, too preoccupied with petty and sometimes even mean concerns to respond to the splendor of it all.

54. "so much that…"句型
But he developed gradually a very musical English. He learnt to write sentences that fall away on the ear with a misty languor and it delighted him so much that he could never have enough of it.

55. "when"引導狀語從句有時並不好譯,不能一看到when從句就考慮譯為"當……的時候",它還有許多種譯法。
Anything is better than not to write clearly. There is nothing to be said against lucidity, and against simplicity only the possibility of dryness. This is a risk that is well worth taking when you reflect how much better it is to be bold than to wear a curly wig.

56. "not…because…",有時可否定前面,有時可否定because本身,往往出現歧義。應根據上下文面判定。
In 1600 the earth was not the center of the universe because the majority then supposed it was; nor, because she had more readers, was Ella wheeler Wilcox a better poet than Father Hopkins.

57. "so…that, such…that"是一個普通的句型,但在同一個句子裏有兩處使用它卻比較少見。
The truth is, that in one point of view, this matter of national literature has come to such a pass with us, that in some sense we must turn bullies, else the day is lost, or superiority so far beyond us, that we can hardly say it will ever be ours.

58. "by doing…"結構。這個結構的意思是"通過(做)……",但翻譯實踐中不能拘泥於這種釋義,不少情況下需要靈活變通。
The hippos, by depositing dung in the water, fed the fish that support the storks that destroy the rare trees.

59. 下面例句為一倒裝句,主語很長,而且又含有非常複雜的句型。這是以形容詞作表語的倒裝,翻譯實踐中多把倒裝部分譯到最前面。
No less obvious is the fact there are great numbers of people so constituted or so brought up that they cannot get so much pleasure out of processes and experiences resulting in a poorer life less full of meaning.

60. "what…of"句型
I can not say of myself what Johnson said of Pope: He never passed a fault unamended by indifference, nor quitted it by despair. I do not write as I do; I write as I can.

61. 英語的一個習慣用法是:當否定謂語think(believe)時,實際上是否定其後面的賓語從句。否定就落在賓語從句上。這樣賓語從句就變成了雙重否定,譯時可以按雙重否定譯,也可按肯定來譯。
It is a valuable work. I do not think anyone writes so well that he cannot learn much from it.

62. "to have not…(as) to see…"中的不定式也有否定意味。
He had not the good breeding to see that simplicity and naturalness are the truest marks of distinction.

63. "It occurred to sb. that…"意為"突然想到","It dawned on sb.that…"."突然想起"等。 從句是想起的內容。
I remember once being on a bus and looking at a stranger. He suddenly looked back at me-i.e.our eyes met. My instinctive reaction was to avert my gaze. It occurred to me that if I had continued to maintain eye contact, I would have been rude and aggressive.

64. "It follows that…"="It happens as a result…"常常被譯為"由此可見","因此","從前","可以推斷"等等。
It follows that the housewife will also expect to be able to have more leisure in her life without lowering her standard of living. It also follows that human domestic servants will have completely ceased to exist.

65. "that's all there is to it ",意思是"也不過如此而已"。可根據上下文視情況處理。
If I'm touched, I'm touched-that's all there is to it.

66. "The chances are that…"是一句型,譯為"有可能……"。
The chances are you will never attempt that speed with poetry or want to race though some passages in fiction over which you wish to linger.

67. Feel, see, leave引起賓語的賓語補足語,或在被動語態中引起主語補足語的某些慣用句型,有時see和feel這兩個詞的被動式不大好譯。遇到這種情況應挖掘其深層含義,不要拘泥於表面形式。
The education of the young is seen to be of primary importance.

68. 某此以no, nowhere, never, not…bout, not…any, nothing but, hardly, scarcely, seldom等否定詞語引出的一些結構。
I never go past the theatre but I think of his last performance.

69. 某些用choice between, to know better, whether or, should have avoided(或done better)等表示從兩種做法中選取一種更好的做法
Then we are faced with a choice between using technology to provide and fulfil needs which have hitherto been regarded as unnecessary or, on the other hand, using technology to reduce the number of hours of work which a man must do in order to earn a given standard of libing.

70. 某些省略情況,應清單確認省略的內容。
The country had grown rich, its commerce was large, and wealth did its natural work in making life softer and more worldly, commerce in deprovincializing the minds of those engaged in it.

71. 修飾成分(包括定語、定語從句、同位語從句等)多而長。
Across the court from the Manhattan apartment that I have occupied for the past few years is a dog that often hurls insults into the darkness, a few of which my dog refuses to accept and makes a tart reply.

72. 一些外位語,所謂外位修飾,指從句子結構和內容上不起主要資訊表達功能的部分。其作用是從語氣和連接上下文等方面進行補充。在翻譯成漢語時,往往可獨立成句,外形上不保留修飾的痕跡。
Of course, nobody was hurt this time, because we had all been to dinner, none of us being novices excepting Hastings; and he having been informed by the minister at the time that he invited him that in deference to the English custom the had not provided any dinner.

smileronald 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(2) 人氣()

目標 mission/ objective
集體目標 group objective
內部環境 internal environment
外部環境 external environment
計畫 planning
組織 organizing
人事 staffing
領導 leading
控制 controlling
步驟 process
原理 principle
方法 technique
經理 manager
總經理 general manager
行政人員 administrator
主管人員 supervisor
企業 enterprise
商業 business
產業 industry
公司 company
效果 effectiveness
效率 efficiency
企業家 entrepreneur
權利 power
職權 authority
職責 responsibility
科學管理 scientific management
現代經營管理 modern operational management
行為科學 behavior science
生產率 productivity
激勵 motivate
動機 motive
法律 law
法規 regulation
經濟體系 economic system
管理職能 managerial function
產品 product
服務 service
利潤 profit
滿意 satisfaction
歸屬 affiliation
尊敬 esteem
策略 strategy
政策 policy
靈活性 discretion
多種經營 diversification
評估 assessment
一致性 consistency
應變策略 consistency strategy
公共關系 public relation
價值 value
抱負 aspiration
偏見 prejudice
審查 review
批准 approval
主要決定 major decision
分公司總經理
division general manager
資產組合距陣 portfolio matrix
明星 star
問號 question mark
現金牛 cash cow
採購 procurement
人口因素 demographic factor
地理因素 geographic factor
公司形象 company image
產品系列 product line
合資企業 joint venture
破產政策 liquidation strategy
緊縮政策 retrenchment strategy
戰術 tactics
激勵 motivation
潛意識 subconscious
地位 status
情感 affection
欲望 desire
壓力 pressure
滿足 satisfaction
自我實現的需要 needs for self-actualization
尊敬的需要 esteem needs
歸屬的需要 affiliation needs
安全的需要 security needs
生理的需要 physiological needs
維持 maintenance
保健 hygiene
激勵因素 motivator
概率 probability
強化理論 reinforcement theory
回饋 feedback
獎金 bonus
股票選擇權 stock option
勞資糾紛 labor dispute
缺勤率 absenteeism
人員流動 turnover
獎勵 reward
特許經營 franchise
熱誠 zeal
信心 confidence
鼓舞 inspire
要素 ingredient
忠誠 loyalty
奉獻 devotion
作風 style
品質 trait
適應性 adaptability
進取性 aggressiveness
熱情 enthusiasm
毅力 persistence
人際交往能力 interpersonal skills
行政管理能力 administrative ability
智力 intelligence
專制式領導 autocratic leader
民主式領導 democratic leader
自由放任式領導 free-rein leader
管理方格圖 the managerial grid
工作效率 work efficiency
服從 obedience
領導行為 leader behavior
支持型領導 supportive leadership
參與型領導 participative leadership
指導型領導 instrumental leadership
成就取向型領導 achievement-oriented leadership
CEO指的是執行長 (Chief Executive Officer)
CFO 財務長 (Chief Finnace Officer)
COO 營運長 (Chief Operation Officer)
CTO 技術長 (Chief Technology Officer)
CPO 採購長 (Chief Procurement Officer)
CMO (Chief Manufacturing Officer)
CQO (Chief Quality Officer)
CKO (Chief Knowledge Officer)
自我實現 self-actualization
人力投入 human input
盈餘 surplus
收入 income
成本 cost
資本財 capital goods
機器 machinery
設備 equipment
建築 building
存貨 inventory
經驗法 the empirical approach
人際行為法 the interpersonal behavior approach
集體行為法 the group behavior approach
協作社會系統法 the cooperative social systems approach
社會技術系統法 the social-technical systems approach
決策理論法 the decision theory approach
數學法 the mathematical approach
系統法 the systems approach
隨機制宜法 the contingency approach
管理任務法 the managerial roles approach
經營法 the operational approach
人際關系 human relation
心理學 psychology
態度 attitude
壓力 pressure
沖突 conflict
招聘 recruit
鑑定 appraisal
選拔 select
培訓 train
報酬 compensation
授權 delegation of authority
協調 coordinate
業績 performance
考績制度 merit system
表現 behavior
下級 subordinate
偏差 deviation
檢驗記錄 inspection record
誤工記錄 record of labor-hours lost
銷售量 sales volume
產品品質 quality of products
先進技術 advanced technology
顧客服務 customer service
策略 strategy
結構 structure
追隨 followership
個性 individuality
性格 personality
安全 safety
自主權 latitude
悲觀的 pessimistic
靜止的 static
樂觀的 optimistic
動態的 dynamic
靈活的 flexible
抵制 resistance
敵對 antagonism
折中 eclectic
領先性 primacy
普遍性 pervasiveness
憂慮 fear
忿恨 resentment
士氣 morale
解雇 layoff
批發 wholesale
零售 retail
程序 procedure
規則 rule
規划 program
預算 budget
共同作用 synergy
大型聯合企業 conglomerate
資源 resource
購買 acquisition
增長目標 growth goal
專利產品 proprietary product
競爭對手 rival
晉升 promotion
管理決策 managerial decision
商業道德 business ethics
有競爭力的價格 competitive price
供貨商 supplier
小販 vendor
利益衝突 conflict of interests
衍生政策 derivative policy
開支帳戶 expense account
批准程序 approval procedure
病假 sick leave
休假 vacation
工時 labor-hour
機時 machine-hour
資本支出 capital outlay
現金流量 cash flow
工資率 wage rate
稅收率 tax rate
股息 dividend
現金狀況 cash position
資金短缺 capital shortage
總預算 overall budget
資產負債表 balance sheet
可行性 feasibility
投入原則 the commitment principle
投資回報 return on investment
生產能力 capacity to produce
實際工作者 practitioner
最終結果 end result
業績 performance
個人利益 personal interest
福利 welfare
市場占有率 market share
創新 innovation
生產率 productivity
利潤率 profitability
社會責任 public responsibility
董事會 board of director
組織規模 size of the organization
組織文化 organizational culture
目標管理 management by objectives
評價工具 appraisal tool
激勵方法 motivational techniques
控制手段 control device
個人價值 personal worth
優勢 strength
劣勢weakness
機會 opportunity
威脅 threat
個人責任 personal responsibility
顧問 counselor
定量目標 quantitative objective
定性目標 qualitative objective
可考核目標 verifiable objective
優先 priority
工資表 payroll

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I. 用於文章主題句
1.不用說…
It goes without saying that子句
= (It is) needless to say (that)子句
= It is obvious that子句
= Obviously, S. + V.

例︰不用說早睡早起是值得的。
It goes without saying that it pays to keep early hours.

2.…是不可能的; 無法…
There is no Ving
= There is no way of Ving.
= There is no possibility of Ving.
= It is impossible to V.
= It is out of the question to V.
= No one can V.
= We cannot V.
例︰不可否認的成功的事業關鍵在於健康的身心。
There is not denying that successful business lies in a healthy body and mind.

3.我深信…
I am greatly convinced (that)子句
= I am greatly assured (that)子句
例︰我深信預防是於治療。
I am greatly convinced that prevention is better than cure.

4.在各種…之中…
Among various kinds of …, …
= Of all the …, …
例︰在各種運動中我尤其喜歡慢跑。
Among various kinds of sports, I like jogging in particular.

5....是很容易證明的。
It can be easily proved (that)子句
例︰時間最珍貴是很容易證明的。
It can be easily proved that nothing is more precious than time.



6.…無論如何強調都不為過
… cannot be overemphasized
例︰交通安全的重要性無論如何強調都不為過。
The importance of traffic safety cannot be overemphasized.

7.就我的看法…;我認為…
In my opinion, …
= To my mind, ….
= As far as I am concerned, …
= I am of the opinion that子句
例︰就我的看法打電動玩具既花費時間也有害健康。
In my opinion, playing video games not only takes much time but is also harmful to health.

8.(A) 每個人都知道…
Everyone knows (that)子句

(B) 就我所知…
As far as my knowledge is concerned, …
例︰就我所知下列方法對我幫助很大。
As far as my knowledge is concerned, the following ways are of great help to me.

9.毫無疑問地…
There is no doubt (that)子句
例︰毫無疑問地近視在我國的年輕人中是一個嚴重的問題。
There is no doubt that near-sightedness is a serious problem among the youth of our country.

10. 根據我個人經驗…
According to my personal experience, …
= Based on my personal experience, …
例︰根據我個人經驗微笑已帶給我許多好處。
According to my personal experience, smile has done me a lot of good.

11. 在我認識的人當中也許沒有一個人比…更值得我尊敬。
Of all the people I know, perhaps non deserves my respect more than …
例︰在我認識的人當中也許沒有一個人比我的英文老師張老師更值得我尊敬。
Of all the people I know, perhaps non deserves my respect more than Miss Chang, my English
teacher.

12. 在我的求學過程中我忘不了…
In the course of my schooling. I will never forget …
例︰在我的求學過程中我忘不了學習英文所遭到的大困難。
In the course of my schooling. I will never forget the great difficulty I encountered in learning
English.
< BR>13. (A) 隨著人口的增加… With the increase/growth of the population, …
(B) 隨著科技的進步, … With the advance of science and technology, …
例︰隨著台灣經濟的快速發展許多社會問題產生了。
With the rapid development of Taiwan's economy, a lot of social problems have come to pass.
14. (A) 在這資訊的年代…扮演重要的角色。
In the age of information and communication, … plays an important role.
(B) 在今日工業社會中…是生命不可或缺的。
In today's industrial society, … is insispensable to life.
例︰在這資訊的年代電腦扮演非常重要的角色。
In this age of information and communication, the computer plays an exptemely important
role.

15. 在討論…一個人不得不承認…。
In dealing with …, one cannot but admit (that)子句
例︰在討論未來的職業一個人不得不承認儘早決定未來的職業很重要。
In dealing with one's future career, one cannot but admit that it is very important to decide one's
future career as early as possible.

16. 世上沒有什麼比…更令我高興。
Nothing in the world can delight me so much as …
例︰世上沒有什麼比到速食店吃漢堡更令我高興。
Nothing in the world can delight me so much as having hamburgers in fast-food restaurants.

17. … 是必要的 It is necessary that S (should) V
… 是重要的 It is important/essential that S (should) V
… 是適當的 It is proper that S (should) V
… 是緊急的 It is urgent that S (should) V
例︰我們當保持公共場所清潔是應當的。
It is proper that we (should) keep the public places clean.

18. 每當我聽到…我就忍不住感到興奮。Whenever I hear …, I cannot but feel excited.
每當我做… 我就忍不住感到悲傷。 Whenever I do …, I cannot but feel sad.
每當我想到…我就忍不住感到緊張。Whenever I think of …, I cannot but feel nervous.
每當我遭遇…我就忍不住感到害怕。Whenever I meet with …, I cannot but feel frightened.
每當我看到… 我就忍不住感到驚訝。Whenever I see …, I cannot but feel surprised.
例︰每當我想到我家附近那一條清澈的小溪我就忍不住感到悲傷。
Whenever I think of the clean brook near my home, I cannot but feel sad.
= Every time I think of the clean brook near my home, I cannot help feeling sad.

19. 據說… It is said (that)子句
一般認為… It is thought (that)子句
大家都知道… It is known (that)子句
據報導… ` It is reported (that)子句
一般預料… It is expected (that)子句
一般估計… It is estimated (that)子句
一般相信… It is believed (that)子句
例︰一般相信閱讀增加我們的知識、擴大我們的心胸。
It is believed (that) reading increases our knowledge and broadens our mind.
20. …的主要理由是…
The main reason why ….. is (that)子句
例︰青少年犯罪的主要理由是社會環境日一敗壞。
The main reason why the juveniles commit crimes is that social environment is becoming worse.

21. 俗語說得好:「…」。
Well goes an old saying, "…"
= As an old saying goes(runs, says), "…"
= An old saying goe s, "…"
= It's an old saying (that)子句
例︰俗話說得好:「誠實為上策」。
As an old saying goes, "Honesty is the best policy."

22.(A) …用下列方法… … in the following ways.
(B) …有三個主要理由。 … for three major reasons.
(C) 要…至少我們可做三件事。 To …, there are at least three things we can do.
例︰
(A) 我用下列方法增加信心。
I increase my confidence in the following ways.
(B) 人們學外語有三個理由。
People learn a foreign language for three major reasons.
(C) 為了維護健康我們每天至少可做三件事。
To keep healthy, there are at least three things we can do every day.

II. 用於文章承轉句

23. 那就是(說)…;亦即…
That is to say, …
= That is, …
= Namely, …
例︰我們生活需有規律。也就是說早睡早起戒除菸酒。
We need to live a regular life. That is, we can keep good hours and refrain from smoking and
drinking in the daily activities.
24. (A) 基於這個理由… For this reason, …
(B) 為了這個 目的… For this purpose, …
例︰基於這個理由我已決定把行醫作為未來的職業。
For this reason, I have decided to take practicing medicine as my future career.

25. 我們有理由相信…
We have reasons to believe (that)子句
例︰我們有理由相信體罰應該嚴格禁止。
We have reasons to believe that corporal punishment should be strictly prohibited.

26. 事實上…
As a matter of fact, …
= In fact, …
例︰事實上健康才是最重要。
As a matter of fact, it is health that counts.

27. (A) 例如… For example, …
(B) 拿…做例子 Take … for example.
例︰例如我們盲目地提高生活水準卻降低生活品質。
For example, we elevate the living standards blindly, but lower the quality of life.

28. 此外我們不應忽視…
Besides (In addition), we should not neglect …
例︰此外我們不應忽視每個人都想要一個溫馨祥和的社會。
In addition, we should not neglect that everyone wants a friendly and peaceful society.

29. 相反地…
on the con trary, …
= by contrast, …
例︰相反地少數學生似乎還在鬼混。
On the contrary, a few students, it seems, are still fooling around.

30. 另一方面…
on the other hand, …
例︰政府應嚴格執法另一方面大眾也應該培養減少污染的好習慣。
The government should enforce laws strictly. On the other hand, the public also should develop
the good habit of reducing pollution.

31. 然而很可惜的是…
However, it is a pity that子句
例︰然而很可惜的是他總是臨時抱佛腳。
However, it is a pity that he should always cram at the eleventh hour.

32. 換言之…
in other words, …
= to put it differently
例︰換言之我會盡最大的努力達成我的目標。
In other words, I will try my best to attain(gain, live up to) my goal.

33. 別人可能認為這是事實但我不是。我認為…
It may be true as assumed by others, but I don't. I believe that子句
例︰別人可能認為這是事實但我不是。我認為…
It may be true as assumed by others, but I don't. I b elieve that if you have strong determination
and perseverance, the success will certainly come to you in the end.

34. 從此之後我已發現…
Ever since then, I have found that子句
例︰從此之後我已發現…
Ever since then, I have found smile the best way to avoid any possible conflicts in our daily lives.

35.這樣說來假如...當然毫無疑問地…。
In this light, if…, there can surely be no doubt (that)子句
例︰這樣說來假如我們能善用時間當然毫無疑問地我們會成功。
In this light, if we can make good use of time, there can surely be no doubt that we will get
somewhere.

36. 更嚴重的是…。
What is more serious is (that)子句
例︰更嚴重的是我們不珍惜野生動物。
What is more serious is that we do not cherish the wildlife.

37. 鑒於社會的實際需要…。
In view of the practical need of society, ….
例︰鑒於社會的實際需要愈來愈多人對學英語有興趣。
In view of the practical need of society, there are more and more people interested in learning
English.

III. 用於文章結論句

38. 如果能實踐這三點…。
If one can really put the three points into action(practice), …
例︰如果能實踐這三點…。
If one can really put the three points into action(practice), he will surely be able to live a healthy and
happy life.

39. 做這些簡單之事我們一定可以…。
By doing these simple things, we surely can ….
例︰做這些簡單之事我們一定可以快樂出門平安回家。
By doing these simple things, we surely can go out of the door happily and come back home safe
every day.

40. 如此我相信…。
In this way, I believe (that)子句
例︰如此我相信大家能夠像我一樣享受乘坐公車的樂趣。
In this way, I believe that all the people may be able to enjoy the bus ride like me.

41. 實踐這些…。
By putting them(the above) into practice, ….
例︰實踐這些在智育方面我一直能不斷進步。
By putting them(the above) into practice, I have been able to make con stant progress in
intellectual education.

42. (A) 唯有符合此三項要求我們才能…。
Only by living up to the three requirements, can we ….
(B) 唯有通力合作我們才能…。
Only with combined efforts, can we ….
例︰唯有通力合作我們才能期望台灣不久有新的面貌。
Only with combined efforts, can we expect Taiwan to take a new face in due course.

43. 最後但並非最不重要…。
Last but no least, ….
例︰最後但並非最不重要教育上的缺失是助長青少年犯罪的原因。
Last but no least, the shortcoming in education is the cause contributing to juvenile delinquency.

44. 這證據顯示~的重要性在怎麼強調都不為過。
This evidence shows that the importance of ~ cannot be overemphasized.
例︰這證據顯示交通安全的重要性在怎麼強調都不為過。
This evidence shows that the importance of traffic safety cannot be overemphasized.

45. 由於這些理由我…。
For these reasons, I ….
例︰由於這些理由我認為在台灣接受大學教育是明智的。
For th ese reasons, I think that receiving college education in Taiwan is wise.

46. 總而言之…。
In conclusion, …
= To sum up, …
例︰總而言之好國民應該遵守交通規則。
In conclusion, a good citizen should abide by traffic regulations.

47. 因此我們能下個結論那就是…。
We can, therefore, come to the conclusion (that)子句
例︰因此我們能下個結論那就是世上自由罪珍貴。
We can, therefore, come to the conclusion that nothing is so precious as freedom in the world.

48. 如果我們能做到如上所述毫無疑問地…。
If we can do as mentioned above, there can be no doubt (that)子句
例︰如果我們能做到如上所述毫無疑問地我們就能精通英語。
If we can do as mentioned above, there can be no doubt that we can master English

49. 因此這就是…的原因。
Thus, this is the reason why ….
例︰因此這就是我重感冒的原因。
Thus, this is the reason why I caught a bad cold.

50. 所以我們應該了解…。
Therefore, we should realize (that)子句
例︰所以我們應該了解學英文不能沒有字典。
Therefore, we should realize that in learning English we cannot do without a dictionary.

51. 因此由上列的討論我們可以明瞭…。
We, therefore, can make clear from the above discussion (that)子句
例︰因此由上列的討論我們可以明瞭毅力可以克服任何困難。
We, therefore, can make clear from the above discussion that perseverance can overcome any
difficulty.

52.
1. 從~觀點來看…。 From the ~ point of view, ….
2. 根據~的看法…。 According to ~ point of view, ….
例︰從政治的觀點來看這是一個很複雜的問題。
From the political point of view, it is a very complex problem

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介詞用法口訣
早、午、晚要用in,at黎明、午夜、點與分。
年、月、年月、季節、周,陽光、燈、影、衣、冒in。
將來時態in...以後,小處at大處in。
有形with無形by,語言、單位、材料in。
特徵、方面與方式,心情成語慣用in。
介詞at和to表方向,攻擊、位置、惡、善分。
日子、日期、年月日,星期加上早、午、晚,
收音、農場、值日on,關於、基礎、靠、著論。
著、罷、出售、偷、公、假,故意、支付、相反,准。
特定時日和“一……就”,on後常接動名詞。
年、月、日加早、午、晚,of之前on代in。
步行、驢、馬、玩笑on,cab,carriage則用in。
at山腳、門口、在當前,速、溫、日落、價、核心。
工具、和、同隨with,具有、獨立、就、原因。
就……來說賓譯主,對、有、方狀、表細分。
海、陸、空、車、偶、被by,單數、人類know to man。
this、that、tomorrow,yesterday,next、last、one。
接年、月、季、星期、周,介詞省略已習慣。
over、under正上下,above、below則不然,
若與數量詞連用,混合使用亦無關。‘
beyond超出、無、不能,against靠著,對與反。
besides,except分內外,among之內along沿。
同類比較except,加for異類記心間。
原狀because of,、 owing to、 due to表語形容詞
under後接修、建中,of、from物、化分。
before、after表一點, ago、later表一段。
before能接完成時,ago過去極有限。
since以來during間,since時態多變換。
與之相比beside,除了last but one。
複不定for、找、價、原,對、給、段、去、為、作、贊。
快到、對、向towards,工、學、軍、城、北、上、南。
but for否定用虛擬,複合介詞待後言。
ing型由於鑒,除了除外與包合。
之後、關於、在......方面,有關介詞須記全。
in內to外表位置,山、水、國界to在前。
如大體掌握如上介調用法口訣,就不易出錯。當然,至於介詞的詳盡用法,同形詞又是連詞及副詞等內容此章不講。下面對該口訣分別舉例幫助你理解消化。
早、午、晚要用in
例:in the morning 在早上
in the afternoon 在下午
in the evening 在晚上
in the day 在白天
at黎明、午、夜、點與分
例: at dawn, at daybreak 在黎明時候
at noon 在中午
at night 在夜間
at midnight 在午夜
以上短語都不用冠詞
at six o'clock 在6點鐘
at 7:30 (seven thirty) 在7點半
at half past eleven 在11點半
at nine fifteen 在9點15分
at ten thirty a.m. 在上午10點30分
也可以寫成
seven to five 5點差7分(半小時以上)
five minutes after two 2點過5分
at a quarter to two 1點45分
at the weekend 在週末
年、月、年月、季節、周
即在“來年”,在“某月”,在“某年某月” (但在某年某月某
日則用on),在四季,在第幾周等都要用in。
例;in 1986 在1986年
in 1927 在1927年
in April 在四月
in March 在三月
in December 1986 1986年12月
in July l983 1983年7月
in spring 在春季 in summer 在夏季
in autumn 在秋季 in winter 在冬季
in the fist week of this semester 這學期的第一周
in the third week 在第三周
陽光、燈、影、衣、冒 in,
即在陽光下,在燈下,在樹陰下,穿衣、著裝、冒雨等都要用in。
例:Don't read in dim light. 切勿在暗淡的燈光下看書。
They are reviewing their lessons in the bright light. 他們在明亮的燈光下復習功課。
They are sitting in the shade of a tree. 他們坐在樹陰下乘涼。
a prisoner in irons 帶著鐐銬的囚犯
He went in the rain to meet me at the station. 他冒雨到車站去接我。
The poor dressed (clothed) in rags in old society. 舊社會窮人們衣衫襤褸.
以及:in the bright sunlight 在明亮的陽光下
a merchant in disguise 喬裝的商人
the woman in white (black, red, yellow) 穿著白(黑、紅、黃)色衣服的婦女
in uniform 穿著制服
in mourning 穿著喪服
in brown shoes 穿著棕色鞋
in his shirt sleeves 穿著襯衫
將來時態in...以後
例: They will come back in 10 days. 他們將10天以後回來。
I'll come round in a day or two. 我一兩天就回來。
We'll be back in no time. 我們一會兒就回來。
Come and see me in two days' time. 兩天後來看我。(從現在開始)
after... (從過去開始)
小處at大處in
例:Li and I arrived at Heishan county safe and sound, all is well. Don't worry. 李和我平安地到達黑山縣,一切很好,勿念。
I live in a great city (big city), my sister lives at a small town while my parents live at a village. 我住在大城市,我姐姐住在一個小城鎮,而我的父母則住在農村。
I'm in Liaoning, at Anshan. 我住在遼寧省鞍山市.
有形with無形by,語言 、單位、材料in
例:The workers are paving a road with stone. 工人們正用石子鋪路。(有形)
The teacher is correcting the paper with a new pen. 這位教師正用一支新筆批改論文。(有形)
"Taking Tiger Mountain by Strategy" is a good opera. <<智取威虎山>>是—出好戲。(無形)
The product is separated by distilation into gasoline and gas oil. 這種產品是用蒸餾分離出氣油和粗柴油。 (表示方式、手段、方法——無形)
I really can't express my idea in English freely in-deed. 我確實不能用英語流利地表達我的思想。 (表示某種語言用in)
I wrote a novel in Russian. 我用俄語寫了一本小說。(同上)
The kilometer is the biggest unit of length in the metric system. 公里是米制中最長的長度單位。 (表示度、量、衡單位的用in )
The length is measured in meter, kilometre, and centimetre. 長度是以米、公里、釐米為單位來計算的。(同上)
This board was cast in bronze not in gold. 這個牌匾是銅鑄的,不是金鑄的。
特徵、方面與方式、心情、成語慣用in
特徵或狀態:
例: The Democratic Party was then in power. 那時民主黨執政。
They found the patient in a coma. 他們發現病人處於昏迷狀態。
He has not been in good health for some years. 他幾年來身體一直不好。
Many who came in despair went away in hope. 許多人帶著絕望情緒而來,卻滿懷希望而去。
The house was in ruins. 這房屋成了廢墟。
The poor girl was in tears. 這個貧苦女孩淚流滿面。
Her clothes were in rags. 她的衣跟穿破了。
His shoes were in holes. 他的鞋穿出窟窿了。
I only said it in fun. 我說這話只是開玩笑的。
She spoke in grief rather than in anger. 與其說她講得很氣憤,不如說她講得很傷心。
還有一些短語也用in,如:
in jest 詼諧地,in joke 開玩笑地,in spite 惡意地, in fairness 公正地,in revenge 報復, in mercy 寬大,in sorrow 傷心地等。
His mind was in great confusion. 他腦子裏很亂。
Today everybody is in high spirits and no one is in low ebb. 今天大家都興高采烈,沒有一個情緒低落的。
She and her classmates are in flower ages. 她和她的同學都正值妙齡。
The compaign was in full swing. 運動正值高潮中。
方面:
例:we accepted the item in principle. 我們在原則上接受了這個條款。
They are never backward in giving their views. 他們從來不怕發表自己的意見。
The backward area has achieved self-sufficient in grain. 這個落後的地區在糧食方面已能自給。
A good teacher must be an example in study. 一個好的教師必須是學習的模範。
方式:
例:All the speeches were taken down in shorthand. 所有報告都用速記記錄下來了。

要想續結果, 下回書
:em27:
:em27:接上回書!
The Party has always educated us in the spirit of patriotism and internationalism. 黨一貫以愛國主義和國際主義精神教育我們。
如下成語慣用in
例如: in all 總計
in advance 事前
in the meantime 與此同時
in place 適當地
in hopes of(或in the hope of) 懷著.......希望
in connection with 和……有關
in contact with 和……聯繫
in addition to 除......以外
in case of 倘若,萬一
in conflict with 和......衝突
in force 有效的,大批
in depth 徹底地
in regard to 關於
in the neighborhood of 大約、鄰近
in retrospect 回顧,一想起
in behalf of 代表......利益
in the least 一點,絲毫
in alarm 驚慌、擔心
in the opinion of 據……見解
in the long run 從長遠說來
in one's opinion 在……看來
in word 口頭上
in a word 總之
in vain 無益地, 白白地
in case 如果,萬一,以防
in detail 詳細地
in haste 急急忙忙地
in conclusion 總之
in spite of 儘管
in other words... 換句話說
in return 作為回報
in the name of 以......名義
be confident in 對......有信心
be interested in 對......感興趣
in doubt 懷疑
in love 戀愛中
in debt 負債
in fun (jest、joke) 玩笑地
in hesitation 猶豫不決
in wonder 在驚奇中
in public (secret) 公開他(秘密地)
in a good humour 心情(情緒)好
“介詞at、to表方向,攻擊、位置、善、惡、分”。
介詞at和to都可以表示方向; 用at表示方向時,側重於攻擊的目標,往往表示惡意;用to表示方向時,突出運動的位置或動作的物件,側重表示善意。試比較下列各句:
1. A.She came at me. 她向我撲過來。
B.She came to me. 她向我走過來。
2.A.Jake ran at John. 傑克向約翰撲過去。
B.Jake ran to John. 傑克朝約翰跑去。
3.A. He rushed at the woman with a sword. 他拿著劍向那婦女撲過去。
B. He rushed to the woman with a sword. 他帶著劍向那婦女跑過去。
4.A.He shouted at the old man. 他大聲喝斥那老人。
B. He shouted to the old man. 他大聲向那老人說
5.A.I heard her muttering at Xiao Li. 我聽見她在抱怨小李。
B.I heard her muttering to Xiao Li. 我聽見她在同小李低聲說話。
6.A. She talked at you just now. 她剛才還說你壞話呢。
B.She talked to you just now. 她剛才還同你談話呢.
7.A.She threw a bone at the dog. 她用一塊骨頭砸狗。
B.She threw a bone to the dog. 她把一塊骨頭扔給狗吃。
8.A.He presented a pistol at me. 他用手槍對著我。
B.He presented a pistol to me. 他贈送我一支手槍。
日子、日期、年月日,星期加上早午晚; 以下皆用on。
例: on Octorber the first 1949 1949年10月1日
on February the thirteenth l893 1893年2月13日
on May the first 5月1日
on the first 1號
on the sixteenth 16號
on the second of January 或 on January the second 1月2日
on a summer evening 在夏天的一個夜晚
on Boxing Day 在節禮日(耶誕節次日)
on New Year's Day 在元旦
on my birthday 在我的生日
但 in the Christmas holidays在耶誕節假期; in the eighteenth century 在十八世紀; in ancient times 在古代; in earlier times 在早期; in modern times 在現代,則用in,the present time 現在,at the present day當今則用at。
on May Day 在“五•一”節
on winter day 在冬天
on Decenber 12th 1950 l950年12月12日
on Sunday 在星期天
on Monday 在星期一
on Tuesday morning 星期二早晨
on Saturday afternoon 星期六下午
on Friday evening 星期五晚上
但last night 昨夜;in the evening 在晚上; on time準時,in time及時,等則不同。
年月日,加早午晚,of之前on代in
例: on the morning of 18th 18日早晨
on the evening of 4th 4日晚上
On the eve of their departure they gave a farewell banquet and their head gave a garewell speech. 他們在臨行前夕舉行了一次告別宴會,他們的團長發表了告別講話。
收音、農場,值日on
例:Did your supervisor like the story over (or on) the radio last night?
您的導師喜歡昨天從收音機裏聽到的故事嗎?
I heard the news over (or on) the radio. 我從收音機裏聽到了這一條消息。
talk over the radio 由無線電播音
on TV 從電視裏......
hear something on the wireless 在無線電裏聽到
My brother works on an Army reclamation farm. 我哥哥在一個軍墾農場工作。
The students are working on a school farm. 學生們正在校辦農場勞動。
This is a farmer's house on a farm. 這是農場的農舍。
Who is on duty, tody? 今天誰值日?
We go on duty at 8 a.m. 我們上午8點鐘上班。
關於、基礎、靠、著論
例: This afternoon we are going to listen to a report on the international situation. 今天下午我們要聽關於國際形勢的報告。
Professor Shen will give us a talk on travelling in America. 申教授將給我們做關於美國之行的報告。
You are wrong on all these issues. 在這些問題上你的看法都錯了。
The belief is based on practical experience. 這種信念是以實際經驗為基礎的。
Theory must be based on practice. 理論必須以實踐為基礎。
The people in the south live on rice. 南方人主食大米。(靠)
The citizens live on their salaries. 城市人靠薪金生活。
You can't afford luxuries, on an income of 100 yuan a month. 靠月薪100元的收入,你是買不起奢侈品的。
Her pet dogs were fed on the choicest food. 她用精飼料餵養她心愛的狗。
He is just a scrounger, who lives on other people. 他正是一個小偷,專靠損害別人過日子。
Keep the kettle on the boil (=boiling). 讓水壺的水一直開著。
The enemy are on the run (=running). 敵人在逃跑。
on後接the加上一個作名詞的動詞.其意義與現在分詞所表達的相近。類似例子很多如:
on the march在行軍中,on the mend 在好轉中,on the prowl徘徊,on the move活動中,on the scrounge巧取豪奪(埋語),on the go活躍,忙碌,on the lookout注意, 警戒,on the watch監視著。on the hop趁不備抓住某人等等。
on the People's Democratic Dictatorship<<實踐論>>和<<矛盾論>>
on the People's Democratic Dictatorship<<論人民民主專政>>
"on Coalition Government" <<論聯合政府>>
著、罷、出售、偷、公、假,故意、支付,相反、准
注:口訣中的“著”是指著火,罷指罷工,偷指偷偷地,公指出差、辦公事;假指休假,准指準時。
例:The house next to mine was on fire. 我鄰居的房子著火了。
The workers of the railway station were on strike. 鐵路工人罷工了。
Grapes and big water melons from Sinkiang are on sale on a large sale. 新疆葡萄和西瓜大量上市了。
do something on the sly (quiet). 秘密地(暗地裏,偷偷地)做某事。
I've come here on business. 我是有公事來的。
They went to Bern on a mission. 他們到伯爾尼去執行一項使命。
They has been away on a long trip. 他們出去做一次長途旅行。
I'll go home on leave next month. 下月我將休假回家。
I went on business to Shanghai. I did not take leave. 我是公出去上海的,不是不告而別。
She came to see you on purpose. 她是專程來看你的。
He came here on purpose to discuss it with you. 他到這來是要與你討論這件事的。
This lunch is on me.
"No. let's go Dutch."
“這頓午飯我付錢。”
“不,還是各付各的。”
On the contrary, it was very easy to understand. 相反,這事兒很容易理解。
P1ease come on time. (on schedule). 請準時來。
注:in time是“及時”的意思。
The train arrived on schedule. 火車準時到達。
特定時間和“一……就”,左右on後動名詞
例:Gases expand on heating and contract on cooling. 氣體加熱時膨脹,冷卻時收縮。(特定時間)
On entering the room, he found his friends dancing in high spirits. 一進屋,他就發現他的朋友們在愉快地跳舞。
On reaching the city he called up Lao Yang. 一到城裏他就給老楊打了一個電話。
I'll write to him on hearing from you. 我接到你的來信就給他寫信。(一……就)
以及on the left, right向左向右,on the stair在臺階上等。
步行、驢、馬、玩笑on,cab,carriage用in
例:On foot步行; on horse騎馬; on donkey 騎驢。
He rode on, blood flowing from his side. 他騎著馬,鮮血從腰部流下來。
The soldier of the Eighth Route Army rode 100 li on a horse a day in order to catch up with his unit. 為趕上部隊,那位八路軍戰士騎馬日行百里。
Go on horse back! 騎馬去!
You are having me on! 你和我開玩笑呢!
in cab和in carriage 不能用on或by cab或carrige。

at山腳、門口在當前,速、溫、日落價核心
即在山腳下、在門口、在目前,速度、以……速率、溫度、在日落時、在……核心要用at。
例:At the foot of the mountain, there are thirty of our comrades. 在山腳下,有我們30個同志。
There is a beautiful lake at the foot of the hill. 山腳下有一個美麗的湖。
At the gate of the house there are many children playing glassball. 門口有一大群孩子在玩玻璃球。
Who's standing there at the door? 誰站在門口?
I don't need the dictionary at present. 我現在還不需要這本詞典。
He is at present in Washington. 他目前正在華盛頓。
The train runs at fifty kilometres an hour. 火車每小時行駛50公里。
we built the plant at top speed and minimun cost. 我們以最低的投資,最高的速度修建了該工廠。
at home 在國內,在家裏
at ten degrees centigrade 在攝氏10度
at minus ten degrees centigrade 攝氏零下10度
Water freezes at 0°centigrade. 水在鑷氏零度結冰。
Water usually boils at 100°. 水通常在攝氏100度沸騰。
at zero 在零度
at the rate of 45 miles an hour
at full speed 全速
at a good price 高價
at a low cost 低成本
at a great cost 花了很大代價
at that time 在當時
Evaporation takes place at all tempertures. 蒸發在任何溫度下都能發生。
at 1000RPM (revolution per minute) 每分鐘1000轉
at a high speed 高速
The soldiers launched an attack upon the enemy at sunset. 戰士們在日落時對敵人發起了攻擊。
at daybreak 日出時
The force at the core leading our cause forward is the Chinese Communist Party. 領導我們事業的核心力量是中國共產黨。
The atom has a nucleus at its core. 在原子的中心有一個原子核。
At the beginning of this term the teacher in charge of our class was very strict with us. 這學期開始,我們的班主任老師對我們要求非常嚴格。

下回書再續! :em27:
接上回書! :em27:
以及At the first session of the First National People's congress of the People's Republic of China. 在中華人民共和國第一次全國人民代表大會第一次會議上.
常用的at短語有:
at first 首先,開始時
at least 至少
at all events 無論如何
at home 在家,無拘束
at one stroke 一下子
at a loss 不知怎辦
at any rate 不管怎樣
at length 詳細地
be at high tide 處於高潮期
at our invitation 應我們的邀請
at our request 應我們的請求
at the news 聽到這消息
at the risk of 冒......危險
at a great expense 以巨大費用
at a stroke 一舉
at intervals of 每隔
at liberty 有權,隨意
at the sight of 一見到
at the point of 接近,靠近
at the thought of 一想到
at the speed of 以......速度
at the cost (price) of 以......為代價
at leisure 閑著、失業
at the disposal of 任憑……使用
at stake 在危險中、在成敗關頭
at bottom 實際上、本質上
at short notice 一得到通知
at seeing us 看到我們
at the happy tidings 聽到喜訊
at sixteen 在16歲時
at the present stage 在現階段
at the weekend 週末
at all times 永遠
at 405 Victory Road 在勝利路405號
工具、同、和、隨with,具有,獨立、就、原因
例:We write with ballpens. 我們用油筆寫字。(工具)
但He write in blue ink. 他用藍水筆寫字(墨水用in不用with)
Theory must go hand in hand with practice. 理論必須同實踐相結合。(同)
He is talking with friends. 他正同朋友們談話。〔同)
I'd like to have a dinner with a friend. 我喜歡同朋友共同進餐。
We must co-operate closely with them. 我們必須同他們緊密合作。(同)
We, as human beings are going to leave, but friendship has taken roots among us and our hearts are linked with yours. 我們雖然就要走了,但是友誼卻在我們之間紮了根,我們的心和你們的心是緊緊相連的。(和或同〕
A cadre must become one with the masses.幹部必須和群眾打成一片。
I'm with you. 我同意你。
An atom is so small that we can't see it with a microscope. 原子太小,即使用顯微鏡也看不見它。(工具)
In the past I had to part with my wife. 舊社會我不得不和妻子離別。(和)
The socialist revolution is deepening with each passing day. 社會主義革命日益深入。(隨著)
They sail with the wind. 他們順風航行。(隨著)
With the change of the economic foundation, the superstructure has to be transformed too. 隨著經濟基礎的改變,上層建築也必須改變。(隨著)
With the battlle of Waterloo, Napoleon's rule in Europe was ended. 滑鐵盧一戰,拿破崙對歐洲的統治就完蛋了。
The modern electron tube. 隨著電子管的發明而誕生了現代電子工業.
She is with child. = She is in a very interesting condition. = in a family way, = She is pregnant (in pregnancy). 她懷孕了。(有)
但She is with a child.意為:“她領著一個孩子。”
China is a very large country with a long history. 中國是一個歷史悠久的大國。(具有)
China is a country with a population of ten billion people. 中國是一個有10億人口的國家。(具有)
What is the matter with you? 怎麼回事?(就,關於)
How is it with you? 你怎麼啦?(就,關於)
Everything was going well with them. 他們一切都進行得很順利。(就……)
It is a very intense flash with a lot of power packed into it. 由於聚集了大量的能,所以閃光非常強烈。(獨立結構)
注;即分詞獨立主格結構用with。
With a new welding technique introduced, the use of stainless steel was no longer limited to making small things only. 由於新的焊接技術的引進,不銹鋼的使用就不僅僅局限在微小的物件上了。(獨立結構)
With all its beams advancing in step with each other the laser possessed very particular properties which no ordinary light ever has. 由於鐳射的光束同步,所以它具有普通光所沒有的特殊性質。(獨立結構)
Without the temperature or pressure changed matter can never change from one state into another. 沒有溫度或壓力的變化,物質永遠不能以一種狀態變到另一種狀態。(獨立結構)
The evil landlord was trembling with fear. 那個萬惡的地主嚇得渾身發抖。(原因)
My wife's hands were rough with work. 我愛人因為老幹活,手很租糙。(原因).
With the help of my classmate's taperecorder I listen to the Voice of America and B.B.C every day. 借助於我同學的答錄機,我每天收聽美國之音和B.B.C。(原因)
With televition, we can see all kinds of programmes on the screen sitting at home without going to the movies and theatres. 因為有了電視,我們坐在家裏就能看到各種節目, 而不必去影院、戲院了。(原因)
就......來說賓譯主,對、有、方狀、表細分
這裏的with後邊的賓語常譯成主語。
例:How are the things with you? 你情況怎樣?
What's wrong with your eyes? 你的眼睛怎麼啦?
Something is wrong with my hands. 我手出點毛病。
Everything was going well with them. 他們一切都進行得很順利。
Parents must be strict with their children. 父母對子女要嚴格。(對)
The doctor was very patient with his patients. 那位醫生對患者非常耐心。(對)
I'm quite satisfied with your answer. 我對你的回答很滿意。(對)
Many intellectuals with revolutionary tendencies went to the liberated areas. 許多帶有革命傾向的知識份子都投奔解放區了。(有)
These apartment houses are for workers with families. 這些住宅樓是給有家屬的工人蓋的。
He was sitting in a chair with his hands folded. 他兩手交叉在胸前坐在椅子上。(狀語)獨立結構
They are highly mechanized farms, with machinery to do all the work. 它們是高度機械化的農場,所有工作都由機器進行。(狀語)獨立結構
上兩句是with引出的複合結構。
I will be with you again in half an hour. 過半個鐘頭我還會跟你們在一起的。
(with的介詞短語作表語。另注意in將來時態in以後)
Our sympathies were with the students persecuted by the gang of four during the cultural revolution. 我們是非常同情“文革”中被“四人幫”迫害的青年學生的。(with的介詞短語作表語)。
海、陸、空、車、偶、被by,單數人類known to man
例: by land (air, sea, water, bus)
陸路(航空,水陸,水路,乘公共汽車)
by micro bus 坐小麵包車(微型汽車)
by mini bus 坐小麵包車
by train 坐火車
by trolley bus 坐無軌電車
by tram 坐有軌電車
by bike 騎自行車
by motor car 騎摩托車
by tube 坐地鐵
by airbus 坐大型客機(空中汽車〕
by jeep 坐吉普車
by chance 偶然
by accident 偶然,無意中
以及by virture of 靠、由於
by leaps and bounds 大幅度地
by way of 經由
by the book 按常規
The list of discoveries by "accident" could fill a long book. 偶然的發現可以寫一本很厚的書。(偶然)
The law of relativity was formulated by Einstein. 相對論是愛因斯坦創立的。(被動)
The book was written by Mr. Zhang. 這本書是張先生寫的。(被動)
That in 1969 the first artificial satellite was launched to the space is known to man. 1969年第一顆人造衛星上了天是眾所周知的。
這裏用to man而不用by。即當單數又無冠詞的man和known搭配時,表示人類不用by。
this,that,tomorrow,yesterday,next, last, one
接年、月、季、星期、周,介詞省略已習慣
例;一天one day (不說on one day)
one summer 在一個夏天
one year 一年
Iast nieht 昨天夜裏
last Friday 上個星期五
last month 上月
last year 去年
yesterday afternoon 昨天下午
tomorrow afternoon 明天下午
tomorrow evening 明天晚上
next month 下個月
next week 下周
next year 明年
next Saturday 下星期六
this morning 今天早晨
this year 今年
this Tuesday 本星期二
this Autumn 今年秋天
that morning 那天早上
that evening 那天晚上
無論前面介詞in、on還是at,通通可省略,不能說at last night, on last Friday, in last month, in this year這些都是不對的,須去掉介詞。
over, under正上下,above, below則不然
若與數量詞連用,混合使用亦無關
例:There is a picture over the window.
窗戶上面有一幅畫。(正上方)
The plane flew above the city. 飛機飛過城市上空。(高於城市並非正上方)
A lamp was hanging over the table. 一盞燈是在方桌上方。(正上方)
The moon was now above the trees in the east. 這時月亮已經在東邊樹林的上方。(非正上方)
Don't stand above the masses. 勿高踞於群眾之上。(比喻一非正上方)
The mountain is 700 feet above sea level. 這座山海拔700米。(非正上方)
There is a small building below the hill. 山下有座小樓房。(非正下方)
There is a submarine under the water. 水下有艘潛水艇。(正下方)
Water was found ten feer below the surface. 在地面下10英尺處找到了水。(非正下方)
The peasants are cooling themselves under the trees. 農民們正在樹下乘涼。(正下方)
over under正上下,低高below與above
The temperature in the room is below (or under) 30℃. 室溫是攝氏30度以下。(數量詞兩者皆可)
Do you have anything in the way of computers below (under) $10000? 你們有哪些價格低於10000美元的電腦? (數量詞兩者皆可〕
beyond超出、無、不能
例:It's quite beyond me (It is more than I can understand). 這我完全不懂。
Don't stay out beyond 10 o'clock. 不要在外呆到10點以後還不回家。
But the gratitude from the bottom of my heart to the students and my old colleagues, has gone beyond my control. 發自肺腑的對學生們和我的老同事們的感激之心使我毫不緊張,毫不拘束;
Your work is beyond all praise, so good that it can't be praised enough. 你的成績是讚揚不盡的。
That is going beyond a joke, passes the limits of what is reasonable as a joke. 那樣開玩笑太過火了。
They were touched beyond words. 他們被感動得無法形容。(無)
To do this was quite beyond all doubts. 辦這事我無能為力。(超出)
This is inevitable and beyond all doubts. 這是必然的,毫無疑義的。(無)
另外, Beyond two cottages stood his house.
句子中的beyond是“那邊”的意思。
against 靠著,對與反
例: In front of the wardrobe there are two upholstered armchairs arranged against the south wall near the door. 立櫃前面是兩把沙發椅,靠著南城門附近。 (靠著)
She leaned wearily against the railings. 她疲憊地靠著欄杆站著。(靠著)
A new president was elected by a majority of 274 votes against 110. 新總統以274票對110票的多數當選。(對……)
besides, except分內外,among之內along沿
例:The design has many other advantages besides lower cost. 除費用低外,該設計還有許多其他優點。(優點包括在內)
He had no time to prepare his lecture, besides which he was unwell. 他沒有時間準備講稿,而且他的身體也不大舒適。
Every one of us, except her, went to see the exhibition. 除她外,我們都去參觀了展覽會。
He gets up early every day except Sunday. 除星期日外他每天早起。
Nobody was late except me. 除我以外,沒人遲到。

同類比較except,加for異類記心間。
He's composition is good, except for some spelling mistakes. 他的這篇作文寫得很好,只是有幾處拼寫錯誤。(非同類比較用except for)
She was all alone in the world except for an old aunt. 除了有一個老姑媽,她別無親人。
Anna felt disappointed when she found out they had gone swimming without her. (without=except) 當安娜發現除她外,他們都去游泳了,她感到很失望。
Lion Head Hill is not worth seeing except for its old temples. 除了那些古寺以外,獅頭山沒什麼可看的。
Among other things, we are interested in drawing. 我們對圖畫和別的一些東西很感興趣。 (among之內即包括在內)
原狀because of, owing to, due to表語形容詞
例:Owing to our joint efforts, the task was fulfilled ahead of schedule. 由於我們的共同努力,任務提前完成了。
注:Owing to 和 because of 都做原因狀語,而due to只能做表語形容詞。所以此句。owing to 的介詞短語做原因狀語。
AII our achievements are due to the correct leadership of our Party. 我們的一切成績都歸功於黨。 (due to做表語形容詞)
under後接修、建中,of,from物化分
例:The road is under repair now. 這條路正在修建中。
The now railway is stil under construction. 新鐵路尚在修築中。(不能用in)
under discussion 在討論中(不能用in) under considerat 在考慮中(不能用in)
The desk is made of wood. 桌子是木頭做的。(物理變化用of)
The wine is made from grape. 這種酒是用葡萄釀造的。(化學變化)
The bridge is made of steel. 這座橋是鋼制的。(物理變化)
Steel is made from iron. 鋼是由鐵煉成的。(化學變化)

before, after 表一點,ago, later表示一段
即before, after常表示一個點的時間狀語,而ago,later常表示一段的時間狀語。
例如:前天the day before yesterday;前年the year before last; 大上星期the week before last等等都表示點狀語的。要想準確無誤地使用好before和ago, after和later比較困難,但要是以“點”和“段”來區別就容易得多。
例:晚飯前 before supper
解放前 before liberation
1970年前 before 1970
文革前 before cultural revolution
國慶前 before National Day
入大學前 before coming to college
這些都是“點”狀語,因為1970年前即1970年1月1
日前。國慶日即10月1日前。
ago表示一段時間。
例:一分鐘前 a minute ago
半小時前 half an hour ago
兩天前 two days ago
一星期前 a week ago
五年前 five years ago
因為 a minute, half an hour, two days, a week, five years等都表示一段時間,所以用ago。以及ten days later等皆如此。
before可接完成時,ago過去級有限
這時的before是連詞(也可做介詞)
例:We had scarcely left our school before it began to rain. 我們剛離開學校,天就下雨了。(完成時)
I had studied French for four months before I came here. 我來這兒以前就已學了四個月法語了。 (before接完成時)
He fell ill three days ago. 他病了三天了。(ago則只能接動詞過去式,同時注意瞬間動詞的問題。)
He left two months ago. 兩個月前他離開了。(同上)
I met her a few minutes ago. 我在幾分鐘前碰到他了。(同上)
since以來during間,since時態多變換
與之相比beside, 除了last but one。
即beside的一般用法是“在......旁邊", 但還有"和......相比”等特殊用法。
例:I feIt so weak in spoken English beside them. 和他們相比,我感到我的口語太差。
Beside work and study, all else was trivial. 同工作和學習比起來,其他一切都是小事。
除了last but one,即but多指“除了”的意思,也有“倒數第幾”的意思。last but one即不是最後一個。
例:I haven't told anybody but one. 除了我愛人,我誰也沒告訴。(除了)
Who but a fool would study foreign language well if he is a hard working one. 如果他勤奮好學的話,除了傻瓜誰都能學好外語。 (除了)
Look at the last page but one. 請看倒數第2頁。
He was the last but three in maths examination this time. 他這次數學考試成績倒數第四。
They live in the next house but one. 他們住在隔壁過去一家。
複不定for、找,價,原,對,給,段,去,為,作,贊
複不定for,即用for引出的不定式複合結構,也就是for加名(代)加不定式;找,意為找到,提供; 價,意為價格、工資;原,意為原因;段,意為時間或距離; 去,意為去某地或開往某地;作,意為作為; 贊,意為贊成(用於系表結構。)
例:It is high time for us to start. 我們不該再遲延了。
The most urgent thing is for us to get the preparation done. 員重要的事情是我們要把準備工作做好。
I don't think it advisable for him to study medicine. 我想她學醫不適合。
Your parents and relatives are anxious for you to go to college. 你的父母和親戚渴望你上大學。
My home town has changed too much for me to recognize. 我的家鄉變化太大,簡直認不出來了。
以上例句都是for在不定式複合結構中的用法。
Someone is asking for you on the telephone. 有人找你接電話。(找)
You'd better write to me for more information about it. 如需更多這方面的資科和資訊,你最好給我寫信。(提問,索要)
They worked in the company for 200 yuan a month. 他們在這個公司幹活,每月嫌200元。(價格)
How much did you pay for the second-hand colour TV? 這台用過的彩電你花了多少錢2(價格)
Thank you very much for your coming. 謝謝您的光臨。〔原因)
Thank you for your warm hospitality. 謝謝您的熱情款待。(原因)
Forgive me for being tardy. 請原諒我遲到了。(原因)
I'm much obliged to you for telling me. 非常感謝你給我談了這個情況。(原因)
We have boundless admiration for your struggle. 對你們酌鬥爭我們無限欽佩。(對)
Listening comprehension materials are good for training our minds. 聽力材料對訓練我們的腦子根有好處。(對)
Take the bitter medicine. It's good for you. 吃下這藥吧,對你有好處。(對)
There is a telegram for Mr. Wang. 這有一份王先生的電報。(給)
May I use it for a minute? 我用一會兒好嗎?(一段時間)
I followed the stealer for some distance. 我跟蹤那個小愉一段路。(一段距離)
The ship was for Dalian. 這破船開往大連。(去某地)
We are off for Shanghai tomorrow. 明天我們去上海。(去某地)
The medicine is for reducing your temperature. 這藥是退燒的。(為……目的)
After breakfast. I'll go for a stroll round the town. 吃完飯我要在城裏到處走走。(為……目的)
I'll keep the lighter given by a foreign friend for a souvenir. 我要把外賓送給我的打火機作為紀念。(作為)
It is only meant for a joke. 這只是當笑話說說罷了。(作為)
We are all for cutting down the cost of production. 我們都贊成降低生產成本。(贊成)
快到、對、向towards,工、學、軍、城、上、北、南
例:It's getting on towards the end of term now. 現在已快到學期未了。(快到)
Towards midnight my husband came back. 快到半夜了我的丈夫才回來。(快到)
Our teacher was very lenient towards us. 我們的老師對我們很松。(對)
What you have invented is really a big contribution towards our company. 你所發明的對我們公司確實是一大貢獻。(對)
The boy came running towards his mother. 那個男孩向他母親跑去。(向著)
所謂工、學、軍、城、上、北、南,是說up和down的用法。這也是漢英翻譯時要注意的。例如:招工,上大學,參軍,進城,上山,向北方等都屬於up。而相反的下鄉,向南,落榜等都屬於down。“大軍南下,北上抗日”大概由此而來。
but for 否定用虛擬,複合介詞待後言。
but for是“若不是”的意思。
例:But for our great Communist Party, we could never have today's happiness. 若沒有偉大的共產黨,我們決不會有今天的幸福生活。
But for this chemical the vapour inside the system would not have been absorbed so completely. 若沒有這個化學劑的作用,系統內的蒸氣不可能被吸收得這麼徹底。
but for將在虛擬語氣中詳講。
以上講到了某些常用介詞in用法,但遠遠不夠,就拿做插入語的介詞短語來說就數不勝數。以下固定搭配不可隨意改動:
例:in general 一般說來
in short 簡言之
in other words 換言之
in my opinion 依我看
in simple words 簡言之
on the whole 基本上
for instance 例如
for short 簡稱
after all 畢竟
above all 首先
此外考試中常出現的成語前置詞也須牢記其用法。
by appearance 從外表
by the atd of 借……的幫助
by far ……得多
by course of ......照......常例
by reason of 由於
by request 應邀
by right of 由於 憑藉
out of date 過時
out of harmony with 與...... 不一致
out of harmony with 擺脫困境
out of bounds 超出許可權
out of proportion to 與......不相稱
out of reach 力量不及
out of one's wits 不知所措
out of question 沒問題
out of the question 不可能的
to a great extent 很大程度上
Io one's taste 合......胃口
to one's thinking 據……看來
to one's heart's content 盡情地
to the utmost 盡力
behind schedule 不準時
behind the times 過時的
behind the curtain 在幕後
within reach 能力所及
within a hair's breadth 差—點
wlthin a stone's throw of 在附近
beyond description 無法形容
beyond reason 毫無道理
beyond reproach 無可指責
beyond one's expectation 超出......範圍
beyond expression 無法表達
ing型由於、鑒,除了,除外與包含。
之後,關於,在……方面,有關介詞須記全。
最後,英語中v.+ing分詞轉化而成的特殊介詞,更須注意,根據其語法功能,把它們同現在分詞,動名詞和連同區分開來。即:
respecting由於, 鑒於; considering 由於, 鑒於; excepting除了; concerning關於; excepting for除外; excluding除外; without excepting sb. 包含; including 包括,包含; following 在……之後; regarding 關於; respecting 在......方面; concerning 有關;
例:considering 由於;
Considering that table salt is the commonest source of sodium in food, the diet usually calls for eating salt-free foods. 由於食鹽是鈉在食物中普遍的來源,醫生給病人規定的,飲食通常要求吃無鹽食品。
respecting鑒於:
Respecting the heavy rain, we had to put off the match. 鑒於下大雨,我們不得不推遲了這場比賽。
excepting 除了:
excepting 可單獨使用,可以與always或否定詞not 連用,也可以與for, without 之類介詞連用。
Excepting one of his close friends, they were present at the party. 除了他的一個摯友外,他們都來赴宴了。
He is an honest man, excepting for his quick temper. 他是個老實人,只是("除了" 脾氣暴躁。(同類比較except,加for異類記心間)。
Everybody is in higt spirits, always excepting him. 大家都情緒高昂,唯他"除外"(例外)。
Only a few survivors without excepting him were living in the settlement. 包括他在內,只有幾個倖存者住在新拓居地。
including包含:
The new apartment consists of three rooms including the kitchen. 這套公寓有三間,包括廚房。
following 在......之後: 相當於after
The week following his first vist to the newsroom he was appointed editor of the important column. 在拜訪該報社編輯部的"第二個"星期,他放任命為該報重要專欄的主筆。
regarding 關於:相當於about
Regarding research investment and number of researchers engaged in this field of research, the U.S.A. commands an overwhelming position followed by Japan. "關於"投入該領域研究的投資額和研究人員的數量,美國占壓倒優勢,其次是日本。
respectiong 在……方面:
Respectiong education, health, medical care as well as production and labor technological development will have to be evaluated with due thought given to social systems and humanism. "在"教育、衛生、生產勞動"方面", 評價技術的發展需根據社會制度和人道主義。
concerning 有關:
The following are some of the arguments both pros and cons concerning computers, thinking, and artificial intelligence. 下面是“有關”電腦、思維和人工智慧方面持贊成和反對態度的一些論據。
當然,這些ing型的介詞,在句子中也有分詞、動名詞和連詞的語法功能。 excluding 和 including,表示排除與包含。
Last year British sales to the rigion were more than $8 billion, while French exports, excluding arms brought in around $3 billion. 去年,英國對這個地區的銷售額達80多億美元,而法國的出口額(武器除外)約為30億美元。
Stress may deplete vitamin C in your body, as can smoking, drinking and a variety of drugs, not excepting aspirin. 生活緊張會耗盡你體內的維生素c,正如吸煙、飲酒、服用某些藥物(包括阿斯匹林)一樣。
至於介詞與形容詞、動詞、名詞的搭配以及複合介詞(又稱複雜介詞)、介詞片語與從句的變換則涉及更多的語法內容。

smileronald 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(1) 人氣()

英語中, 有些單詞的拼法很相似,容易混淆,下面就是一些這類的詞。
1) quite 相當 quiet 安靜地
2) affect v 影響, 假裝 effect n 結果, 影響
3) adapt 適應 adopt 採用 adept 內行
4) angel 天使 angle 角度
5) dairy 牛奶廠 diary 日記
6) contend 奮鬥, 鬥爭 content 內容, 滿足的 context 上下文 contest 競爭, 比賽
7) principal 校長, 主要的 principle 原則
8) implicit 含蓄的 explicit 明白的
9) dessert 甜食 desert 沙漠 v 放棄 dissert 寫論文
10) pat 輕拍 tap 輕打 slap 掌擊 rap 敲,打
11) decent 正經的 descent n 向下, 血統 descend v 向下
12) sweet 甜的 sweat 汗水
13) later 後來 latter 後者 latest 最近的 lately adv 最近
14) costume 服裝 custom 習慣
15) extensive 廣泛的 intensive 深刻的
16) aural 耳的 oral 口頭的
17) abroad 國外 aboard 上(船,飛機)
18) altar 祭壇 alter 改變
19) assent 同意 ascent 上升 accent 口音
20) champion 冠軍 champagne 香檳酒 campaign 戰役
21) baron 男爵 barren 不毛之地的 barn 古倉
22) beam 梁, 光束 bean 豆 been have 過去式
23) precede 領先 proceed 進行,繼續
24) pray 祈禱 prey 獵物
25) chicken 雞 kitchen 廚房
26) monkey 猴子 donkey 驢
27) chore 家務活 chord 和弦 cord 細繩
28) cite 引用 site 場所 sight 視覺
29) clash (金屬)幢擊聲 crash 碰幢,墜落 crush 壓壞
30) compliment 讚美 complement 附加物
31) confirm 確認 conform 使順從
32) contact 接觸 contract 合同 contrast 對照
33) council 議會 counsel 忠告 consul 領事
34) crow 烏鴉 crown 王冠 clown 小丑 cow 牛
35) dose 一劑藥 doze 打盹
36) drawn draw 過去分詞 drown 溺水
37) emigrant 移民到國外 immigrant 從某國來的移民
38) excess n 超過 exceed v超過 excel 擅長
39) hotel 青年旅社 hostel 旅店
40) latitude 緯度 altitude 高度 gratitude 感激
41) immoral 不道德 的 immortal 不朽的
42) lone 孤獨的 alone 單獨的 lonely 寂寞的
43) mortal 不死的 metal 金屬 mental 神經的 medal 勳章 model 模特meddle 玩弄
44) scare 驚嚇 scarce 缺乏的
45) drought 天旱 draught 通風, 拖 拉 draughts (英)國際跳棋
46) assure 保證 ensure 使確定 insure 保險
47) except 除外 expect 期望 accept 接受 excerpt 選錄 exempt 免除
48) floor 地板 flour 麵粉
49) incident 事件 accident 意外
50) inspiration 靈感 aspiration 渴望
51) march 三月, 前進 match 比賽
52) patent 專利 potent 有力的 potential 潛在的
53) police 警察 policy 政策 politics 政治
54) protest 抗議 protect 保護
55) require 需要 inquire 詢問 enquire 詢問 acquire 獲得
56) revenge 報仇 avenge 為...報仇
57) story 故事 storey 樓層 store 商店
58) strike 打 stick 堅持 strict 嚴格的
59) expand 擴張 expend 花費 extend 延長
60) commerce 商業 commence 開始
61) through 通過 thorough 徹底的 (al)though 儘管 thought think 過去分詞
62) purpose 目的 suppose 假設 propose 建議
63) expect 期望 respect 尊敬 aspect 方面 inspect 視察 suspect 懷疑
64) glide 滑翔 slide 使滑行 slip 跌落
65) steal 偷 steel 鋼
66) strive 努力 stride 大步走
67) allusion 暗示 illusion 幻覺 delusion 錯覺 elusion 逃避
68) prospect 前景 perspective 透視法
69) stationery 文具 stationary 固定的
70) loose 松的 lose 丟失 loss n 損失 lost lose過去式
71) amend 改正, 修正 emend 校正
72) amoral unmoral immoral 同義 不道德的
73) capitol 大廈 capital 首都
74) casual 隨便的 causal 表原因的
75) extend 延伸 extent 長度 extant 現存的
76) inability 沒能力 disability 殘疾
77) personnel 人事 personal 個人的
78) statue 塑像 statute 法令 stature 身長 status 地位
79) widow 寡婦 window 窗戶
80) socks 短襪 stockings 長筒襪
81) tax 稅 taxi 出租
82) definite 不定的 infinite 無限的
83) grim 嚴酷的 grime 污點
84) crayon 蠟筆 canyon 山谷
85) recent 最近 resent 生氣
86) phrase 短語 phase 階段
87) mission 使命 emission 散發, 發射 mansion 大廈
88) vision 視覺 version 譯本
89) gasp 上氣不接下氣 grasp 抓住
90) delicate 微妙的 dedicate 獻身
91) idle 空閒的 idol 偶像
92) induce 促使,勸誘 deduce 推測 reduce 減少 seduce 誘使
93) lapse 流逝 elapse 消逝 eclipse 日食
94) rude 粗魯的 crude 天然的
95) source 水源 sauce 醬油 saucer 茶托 resource 資源 recourse 求援
96) sled (兒童)雪橇 sledge 雪橇
97) stripe 條紋 strip 條 trip 旅行
98) vocation 職業 vacation 假期 evocation 召集 revocation 撤回
99) ardor 熱情 adore 崇拜 adorn 裝飾
100) area 區域 era 時代
101) resemble 象... assemble v 集合,裝配 assembly n 集合, 裝配
102) assume 假定 resume 恢復
103) attain 達到 obtain 獲得 abstain 放棄
104) award 授予 reward 獎賞
105) baggage (American English) luggage 行李
106) badge 徽章 bandage 繃帶
107) blade 刀刃 bald 禿的 bold 大膽
108) bloom 開花 blossom 開花(結果實) bosom 胸口
109)blush 臉紅 flush 發紅(臉)
110) bride 新娘 bribe 賄賂
111) growl 咆哮 howl 狼叫
112) depress 使沮喪 suppress 鎮壓 oppress 壓迫
113) dime 一角 dim 暗淡的
114) dizzy 眼花繚亂 dazzle 使眼花
115) brown 褐色 brow 眼眉 blow 打擊
116) bullet 子彈 bulletin 公告
117) carton 紙板盒 cartoon 動畫
118) chivalry 騎士精神 cavalry 騎兵隊
119) collar 領子 cellar 地窖 color 顏色
120) vanish 消失 evanish 使消失
121) intrude 入侵 extrude 逐出 detrude 推下
122) contort 扭彎 distort 弄彎 retort 反駁
123) eminent 傑出的 imminent 逼近的
124) decline 下降 recline 放置 incline 傾斜
125) exclaim 呼喊 proclaim 宣佈 acclaim 歡呼 declaim 朗誦
126) edict 法令 indict 控告
127) perfuse 潑灑 profuse 浪費的
128) reject 拒絕 eject 逐出 inject 注射 deject 使沮喪
129) literacy 識字 literary 文學的 literature 文學 literal 文字的
130) median 中央的,中線的 medium 媒體
131) expel 驅逐 repel 反擊 impel 推動 dispel 驅散
132) rip 撕 ripe 熟的
133) wench 絞車 wrench 扭傷
134) confidant 知己 confident 有信心的
135) dine 吃飯 diner 吃飯人 dinning n 吃飯 dinner 晚飯
136) dreg 渣滓 drag 拖拉
137) faint 失去知覺 feint 佯攻
138) imprudence 輕率 impudence 無恥
139) specie 硬幣 species 種類
140) hanger 鉤子 hangar 棚廠 hunger 飢餓
141) suite 一(套,批) suit一套衣服

smileronald 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(1) 人氣()

What can i show you?或May i help you?
我能為你效勞嗎?
I'm looking for some jackets.
我想看些夾克
how about those on models?
模特兒身上的那件如何?
May i try this on?
我可以試穿嗎?
What material is this?
這是啥質料的丫?
Is this pure or imitation?
這是正的還仿的?
Are these jackets in fashion?
這些夾克都是流行款示嗎?
It's a famous brand.
這是有名的品牌
Have you black?
有黑色的嗎?
It sells like hot cakes.
它很暢銷的
Could you alter it for me ?
你能替我修改一下嗎?
Follow me to a fitting room.
跟我去試衣間
How does it fit you?
這件適合你嗎?
This jacket fits me well.
這件夾克很適合我
What a price.
好貴的價格丫
How about half the price?
半價好嗎?
Can you offer discount?
你能打個折嗎?
How much in all?
全部多少錢呢?
It comes to 7.5 dollars.
總共7.5美元
Could you please gift-wrap it?
送禮的,請幫我包裝好嗎?
Can you make it cheaper?
你能算便宜一點嗎?
How soon can they be delivered?
他們多快能送貨?
Do you honor(take) this credit card?
你們接受此種信用卡嗎?
Does this watch have warranty(guarantee)?
這隻錶有保證書嗎?
The article(goods) are sold out.
商品全賣光了
This is out of stock.
這個現在已沒貨了
Can i refund(return)?
我可以退貨嗎?
Your receipt, please.
你的收據,謝謝
Do you want buy used goods?
你要買二手貨嗎?
Here is an auction site.
這裡是個競價拍賣場
What are the store's hours?
營業時間是幾點到幾點呢?
Do you have this dress in a different size?
這件洋裝有其他的尺寸嗎?
It looks nice on you.
這件看起來和你很搭配
Too much, what's your recommendation?
太多了,能推薦一下嗎?
How would you like to pay for it?
您要如何付帳呢?

smileronald 發表在 痞客邦 PIXNET 留言(0) 人氣()

1. Stop complaining! 別發牢騷!

2. You make me sick! 你真讓我噁心!

3. What's wrong with you? 你怎麼回事?

4. You shouldn't have done that! 你真不應該那樣做!

5. You're a jerk! 你是個廢物/混球!

6. Don't talk to me like that! 別那樣和我說話!

7. Who do you think you are? 你以為你是誰?

8. What's your problem? 你怎麼回事啊?

9. I hate you! 我討厭你!

10. I don't want to see your face! 我不願再見到你!

11. You're crazy! 你瘋了!

12. Are you insane/crazy/out of your mind? 你瘋了嗎?(美國人絕對常用 !)


13. Don't bother me. 別煩我。

14. Knock it off. 少來這一套。

15 . Get out of my face. 從我面前消失!

16. Leave me alone. 走開。

17. Get lost.滾開!

18. Take a hike! 哪兒涼快哪兒歇著去吧。

19. You piss me off. 你氣死我了。

20. It's none of your business. 關你屁事!

21. What's the meaning of this? 這是什麼意思?

22. How dare you! 你敢!

23. Cut it out. 省省吧。

24. You stupid jerk! 你這蠢豬!

25. You have a lot of nerve. 臉皮真厚。

26. I'm fed up. 我厭倦了。

27. I can't take it anymore. 我受不了了!(常用)

28. I've had enough of your garbage. 我聽膩了你的廢話。

29. Shut up! 閉嘴!

30. What do you want? 你想怎麼樣?

31. Do you know what time it is? 你知道現在都幾點嗎?

32. What were you thinking? 你腦子進水啊?

33. How can you say that? 你怎麼可以這樣說?

34. Who says? 誰說的?

35. That's what you think! 那才是你腦子裏想的!

36. Don't look at me like that. 別那樣看著我。

37. What did you say? 你說什麼?

38. You are out of your mind. 你腦子有毛病!

39. You make me so mad.你氣死我了啦。

40. Drop dead. 去死吧!

41. fXXk off. 滾蛋。

42. Don't give me your shit. 別跟我胡扯。

43. Don't give me your ex cuses/ No more excuses. 別找藉口。

44. You're a pain in the ass. 你這討厭鬼。

45. You're an asshole. 你這缺德鬼。

46. You bastard! 你這雜種!

47. Get over yourself. 別自以為是。

48. You're nothing to me. 你對我什麼都不是。

49. It's not my fault. 不是我的錯。

50. You look guilty. 你看起來心虛。

51. I can't help it. 我沒辦法。

52. That's your problem. 那是你的問題。

53. I don't want to hear it. 我不想聽!

54. Get off my back. 少跟我囉嗦。

55. Give me a break. 饒了我吧。

56. Who do you think youre talking to? 你以為你在跟誰說話?

57. Look at this mess! 看看這爛攤子!

58. Youre so careless. 你真粗心。

59. Why on earth didn't you tell me the truth? 你到底為什麼不跟我說實話?

60. I'm about to explode! 我肺都快要氣炸了!

61. What a stupid idiot! 真是白癡一個!

62. I'm not going to put up with this! 我再也受不了啦!

63. I never want to see your face again! 我再也不要見到你!

64. That's terrible. 真糟糕!

65. Just look at what you've done! 看看你都做了些什麼!

66. I wish I had never met you. 我真後悔這輩子遇到你!

67. You're a disgrace. 你真丟人!

68. I'll never forgive you! 我永遠都不會饒恕你!

69. Don't nag me! 別在我面前嘮叨!

70. I'm sick of it. 我都膩了。

71. You're such a bitch! 你這個婊子!

72. Stop screwing/ fooling/ messing around! 別鬼混了!

73. Mind your own business! 管好你自己的事!

74. You're just a good for nothing bum! 你真是一個廢物!/ 你一無是處!

75. You've gone too far! 你太過分了!

76. I loathe you! 我討厭你!

77. I detest you! 我恨你!

78. Get the hell out of here! 滾開!

79. Don't be that way! 別那樣!

80. Can't you do anything right? 成事不足,敗事有餘。

81. You're impossible. 你真不可救藥。

82. Don't touch me! 別碰我!

83. Get away from me! 離我遠一點兒!

84. Get out of my life. 我不願再見到你。/ 從我的生活中消失吧。

85. You're a joke! 你真是一個小丑!

86. Don't give me your attitude. 別跟我擺架子。

87. You'll be sorry. 你會後悔的。

88. We're through. 我們完了!

89. Look at the mess you've made! 你搞得一團糟!

90. You've ruined everything. 全都讓你搞砸了。

91. I can't believe your never. 你好大的膽子!

92. You're away too far. 你太過分了。

93. I can't take you any more! 我再也受不了你啦!

94. I'm telling you for the last time! 我最後再告訴你一次!

95. I could kill you! 我宰了你!

96. That's the stupidest thing I've ever heard! 那是我聽到的最愚蠢的事!

97. I can't believe a word you say. 我才不信你呢!

98. You never tell the truth! 你從來就不說實話!

99. Don't push me ! 別逼我!

100. Enough is enough! 夠了夠了!

101. Don't waste my time anymore. 別再浪費我的時間了!

102. Don't make so much noise. I’m working. 別吵,我在幹活。

103. It's unfair. 太不公平了。

104. I'm very disappointed. 真讓我失望。

105. Don't panic! 別怕!

106. What do you think you are doing? 你知道你在做什麼嗎?

107. Don't you dare come back again! 你敢再回來!

108. You asked for it. 你自找的。

109. Nonsense! 鬼話!

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2007/11/12~2007/11/18

牡羊座3月21日~4月19日
與情人的關係要比之前改善了許多,一向率性獨立的牡羊,近來變得相當黏人,總希望情人能夠陪伴在身邊,倒是可以趁著空檔,兩個人一起去參觀藝文活動,或是利用周末度個假,好好享受二人世界。

金牛座4月20日~5月20日
經過一番思緒的沈澱與整理之後,金牛們腦海中蘊績著鮮活的意識,會急欲呈現在眾人面前,有些雀躍,但是仍要注意自己用詞遣字的態度,小心禍從口出。

雙子座5月21日~6月21日
在家待不住的雙子,社交生活相當活絡,忙得不可開交,別把身體健康弄糟了,想打拼都將後繼無力,在學的雙子這周因為貪玩,容易遭受父母師長的責備,自己心中也有著許多苦水無處可傾吐,感覺周遭似乎沒人瞭解你。

巨蟹座6月22日~7月22日
巨蟹們要特別注意這一陣子的飲食起居,天候的變化和忙碌的行程,若抵抗力欠佳的話就很容易生病,本周蟹子們的心緒也像天氣一般的詭譎多變,有些大起大落的現象。

獅子座7月23日~8月22日
雖然有著不錯的邂逅運,但你顯然並沒有把愛情的經營放在第一順位,把事業賺錢朋友都擺在前面,可能會惹惱你的情人,還是得多花一些精神時間鞏固兩人的關係,以免突然生變。

處女座8月23日~9月22日
單身的處女們,本周的人氣紅不讓,會受到許多的邀約,不妨享受一下浪漫悠閒的氣氛,如果邂逅的對象及約會人選,你還在考慮是否進一步交往的話,也不必急於表態,讓自己放鬆、調適一番才是重點。

天秤座9月23日~10月22日
愛情是提振精神能量的良藥,生活緊張,忙碌得端不過氣來的秤子,情人將扮演著你事業推手和貴助的角色,很清楚自己定位的秤子,能夠左右逢源,展現無限魅力,只要多開口,你的要求幾乎都能達到目的,但接近周末時則要注意和情人發生爭吵不愉快。

天蠍座10月23日~11月21日
表面看來冷漠堅強的蠍子,其實有著一顆柔軟的心,趁著這陣子人際運勢良好,而且家人都非常支持你的時刻,好好的去改善彼此的關係,有什麼想法都不妨提出來聽聽他們的意見,對你有著莫大益處。

射手座11月22日~12月21日
強調自己的行動與特質,誇張的言辭與舉動都能夠讓射手們予人印象深刻,擅於逆勢操作,大家也對你見怪不怪,令人側目的言行,還頗為先聲奪人,想做什麼都還蠻容易達到目的。

摩羯座12月22日~1月19日
只要多加一把勁,一切都可以照著意願動了起來,感情方面也有回溫的趨勢,若是舊情難捨,就不妨把你溫馨的關懷讓對方感受到,而不是一直矜持著等人家來替你緩頰或打圓場。

水瓶座1月20日~2月18日
單身的瓶子有著許多浪漫的際遇,雖然一向條理分明,口才不錯,但是在表現浪漫時,你可能顯得不夠真實,甚至拙於表現,以致讓對方無法接收到你真正想傳遞給他愛的訊息。

雙魚座2月19日~3月20日
接近周末時,受到火星逆行的影響,忙碌加上壓力大的雙魚們,容易情緒失控,變得沒耐心又經常口不擇言,一些不該說的話沒經過思索就脫口而出,造成人際上的困擾。

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世界盃棒球賽中華隊最終戰,迎戰墨西哥隊,雖攻勢甦醒,惜關鍵時刻總缺臨門一棒,終場以4:6,2分之差黯然吞敗,拿下本屆賽事第八名的成績。


中華隊今天排出的先發打線為:第一棒蔣智賢(二壘手)、第二棒鄭兆行(游擊手)、第三棒彭政閔(右外野手)、第四棒陳金鋒(指定打擊)、第五棒張泰山(三壘手)、第六棒謝佳賢(一壘手)、第七棒羅國輝(中外野手)、第八棒葉君璋(捕手)、第九棒廖英傑(左外野手)。

墨西哥隊排出的投打陣容為:第一棒阿烏瑪達(游擊手)、第二棒康崔拉斯〈中外野手)、第三棒布魏爾納(左外野手)、第四棒洛培茲(一壘手)、第五棒艾斯皮諾扎(三壘手)、第六棒加倫瑞(指定打擊)、第七棒德拉托瑞(右外野手)、第八棒阿雷荷斯(二壘手)、第九棒菲利克斯(捕手),投手德加迪約。

一局上,場上飄著細雨,墨西哥隊先攻,首棒阿烏瑪達第一球就出棒,擊出三、游間穿越安打;康崔拉斯揮出小飛球,黃志龍接殺後,快傳一壘封殺來不及回一壘的阿烏瑪達完成雙殺守備;布魏爾納內滾遭刺殺;墨西哥隊三上三下。

一局下,旅美小將蔣智賢擔任中華隊開路先鋒,也是第一球就揮棒,擊出一、二壘間穿越安打;鄭兆行遭三振;輪到「恰恰」彭政閔打擊,蔣智賢盜壘失敗,回一壘不及遭牽制出局,恰恰遭三振,中華隊三上三下。

二局上,四棒洛培茲,擊出中間方向穿越安打;艾斯皮諾扎中外野深遠飛球遭接殺;場上雨勢逐漸增大,下一棒加倫瑞,右外野深遠飛球遭接殺;德拉托瑞獲得保送;阿雷荷斯、菲利克斯連續敲出安打,比數中華隊0:3落後,中華隊喊出暫停;阿烏瑪達內滾遭刺殺,3人出局。

二局下,中華隊展開反撲!陳金鋒在滿球數的情況下,擊出二壘安打;抱傷上陣的張泰山也敲出二壘安打,帶有1分打點;謝佳賢擊出左外野深遠飛球遭接殺,張泰山推進至三壘;羅國輝遭三振;葉君璋擊出高飛球遭接殺。

三局上,中華隊換投,黃志龍下,廖于誠上;二棒康崔拉斯,偷襲短打成功攻佔一壘;輪到布魏爾納打擊,康崔拉斯盜壘遭阻殺,布魏爾納獲得保送;下一棒洛培茲打擊,廖于誠牽制一壘跑者遭裁判判定投手犯規,布魏爾納推進至得點圈;洛培茲遭三振;艾斯皮諾扎擊出穿越安打帶有1分打點;加倫瑞左外野飛球遭接殺,3人出局;比數來到1:4中華隊落後。

三局下,蔣智賢面對第一球,再度敲出一壘安打;鄭兆行內滾遭刺殺,蔣智賢推進至得點圈;恰恰、鋒仔分別擊出內滾遭刺殺。

四局上,七棒德拉托瑞,中外野飛球遭接殺;阿雷荷斯高飛球遭接殺;菲利克斯內滾遭刺殺;廖于誠穩住陣腳,讓墨西哥隊吞下三上三下。

四局下,五棒張泰山遭三振,謝佳賢內滾遭刺殺,羅國輝再吞三振,中華隊三上三下。

五局上,首棒阿烏瑪達,敲出三壘邊線的二壘安打;康崔拉斯獲得保送;布魏爾納擊出深遠飛球,中外野手羅國輝行進間精彩接殺守備,沒收掉這支安打;中華隊決定再換投,第三任投手林英傑上場中繼;洛培茲擊出雙殺打,林英傑順利化解失分危機。

五局下,捕手葉君璋,打出內野反彈球遭刺殺;廖英傑遭三振;蔣智賢獲得保送;鄭兆行內滾遭刺殺。

六局上,五棒艾斯皮諾扎內滾遭刺殺;加倫瑞平飛球遭接殺;德拉托瑞敲出三壘邊線二壘安打;阿雷荷斯遭三振,墨西哥隊留下殘壘。

六局下,恰恰擊出中外野深遠飛球遭接殺;鋒仔內滾遭刺殺;張泰山擊出中間方向滾地球,墨西哥隊游擊手阿烏瑪達漏接,張泰山安全上壘;謝佳賢敲出右外野平飛安打,中華隊攻佔一、三壘;惜羅國輝遭三振,中華隊欠缺臨門一棒,比數仍凍結在1:4中華隊落後。

七局上,場上依舊飄著細雨,九棒捕手菲利克斯,平飛球遭接殺;阿烏瑪達內滾遭刺殺;康崔拉斯敲出右外野平飛安打;布魏爾納觸身球上壘;四棒洛培茲敲出二壘安打帶有1分打點;中華隊易投,許銘傑上場救援;艾斯皮諾扎內滾遭刺殺,3人出局,雙方比數拉大到1:5,中華隊落後。

七局下,墨西哥隊換投,背號38號卡馬上場救援;葉君璋的打擊,換上林琨笙代打建功,敲出平飛安打;廖英傑遭三振;蔣智賢平飛球遭接殺;鄭兆行敲出平飛安打;恰恰遭三振,中華隊無功而返留下殘壘。

八局上,六棒加倫瑞高飛球遭接殺;德拉托瑞內滾遭刺殺;阿雷荷斯平飛球遭接殺;墨西哥隊三上三下。

八局下,墨西哥隊再換投,派出背號42號羅貝多救援;鋒仔、張泰山接連敲出安打,中華隊攻佔二、三壘;謝佳賢敲出高飛犧牲打,帶有1分打點;羅國輝敲出中外野落地安打,中華隊攻佔一、三壘。

墨西哥隊喊出暫停決定換投,換上第四任投手,背號31號科波斯救援;林琨笙高飛犧牲打,帶有1分打點;廖英傑的打擊,中華隊換上代打詹智堯,敲出強勁滾地球,二壘手阿雷荷斯漏接,羅國輝順利跑回中華隊第4分,惜蔣智賢遭三振,比數來到4:5,中華隊落後。

九局上,菲利克斯敲出一壘安打,面對阿烏瑪達的打擊,林琨笙接球捕逸,菲利克斯盜上二壘,阿烏瑪達敲出內滾,許銘傑發生失誤,墨西哥隊攻佔一、三壘;康崔拉斯高飛犧牲打,帶有1分打點,比數拉開為2分差;布魏爾納內滾遭刺殺,中華隊換上第五任投手倪福德救援;洛培茲遭三振。

九局下,墨西哥隊更換守備,右外野手德拉托瑞下,換上背號68號山多瓦;二棒鄭兆行率先擊出一壘安打;恰恰遭三振;鋒仔擊出雙殺打,終場中華隊以4:6不敵墨西哥,本屆賽事拿下第八名。

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甲、背景基礎
一、什麼叫攝影?

  將影像透過攝影器材存入記憶材料的過程。所謂攝影器材包括照相機、 攝錄影機....等,本文針對照相機。

二、照相機

 1.記憶材料需事後沖洗者

  分單眼、雙眼、複眼、立體幾種。常用者為前二者:

  a)單眼:預視窗口和照相途徑相同者,因此預視窗口看到的和被拍照下 來的影像是相同的。這類照相機的鏡頭通常可以拆卸下來,並 且換上別種功能的鏡頭。

  b)雙眼:預視窗口和鏡頭是分開的,因此預視窗口和拍攝下來的影像會 有稍許差異。這類照相機的鏡頭是不能拆卸的。一般所謂傻瓜 相機屬之。

 2.記憶材料無需事後沖洗者

  a)立即顯影者:拍立得(Polaroid)

  b)數據化者:數據相機屬之,其記憶材料均為電子晶體方式,需事後在 電腦上處理,也可以直接在相機上觀賞。

 3.依相機的操作方式,又可分為全自動、半自動、全手動幾種。傻瓜相機 均為全自動,老式相機為全手動,比較高級的現代單眼相機差不多都同 時具有全自動、半自動及全手動的彈性選擇。

三、記憶材料

 1.記憶卡或軟片(底片),後者分正片及負片兩種。正片者沖洗出來後, 軟片上的影像和實際上的影像顏色相同,無需再進一步沖洗就可以觀 賞。觀賞時通常需要投射器材,例如幻燈機。故正片通常稱為幻燈片。 負片者第一次沖洗出來為互補顏色,和真實色彩有極大差距,故不能直 接觀賞,必需另外沖洗為照片後才能觀賞

 2.感光度:底片對光線反應的敏感程度。通常以ISO 數字表示,數字越大 表示感光性越強。常用的底片為ISO 100 、400 、1000等,一般而言, 感光度越高,底片的顆粒越粗,放大後的效果較差。不過因為近年來底 片製作技術大有精進,現在有些高感光度的底片仍能維持很細的顆粒, 例如我個人最喜歡用的fujicolor-400, fujuchrome-400 就是例子。記 憶卡無所謂感光度的問題。

四、鏡頭

  有標準鏡頭(固定焦距)、變焦鏡頭(可調焦距)、廣角鏡頭(較寬的 視界,最寬的稱為金魚眼鏡頭)、遠攝鏡頭(又稱為望遠鏡頭)、特殊功能 鏡頭(例如特寫鏡頭等)、增距附加鏡頭等。每一種鏡頭都有不同的效果。 傻瓜相機雖然不能換鏡頭,但現在也有許多可變焦的(通常在相機上會標有 ZOOM的字眼)。變焦又可以分成連續變焦和分段變焦兩種,購買時要注意說 明。可變焦的傻瓜相機通常是35 -80,數字表示焦距的長度,單位是毫米; 換句話說,這個鏡頭可以將影像拉近2.29倍。現在市面上放大倍率最高的傻 瓜相機是PENTAX ESPIO-160,它的焦距是38mm -160mm ,可放大 4.2倍。但 變焦傻瓜相機需要有地方容納多件鏡頭在一起,所以體積無可避免的會比較 大。

五、其他配件

  閃光燈、三腳架、護鏡、濾光鏡、程式卡。

乙、基本技巧

一、以不讓相機晃動的姿勢操作相機

  建議的拿法:右手拿穩握把,左手輕扶相機底部或鏡頭下方。不過近代 的相機越做越精巧,而且材質越輕,再加上都有人體工學的設計,握相 機不會吃力,所以怎麼握相機並不重要,只要拿隱就好。最重要的是要 注意不要讓配件遮住鏡頭而不自知,例如背帶、手指。

  若需用較長的曝光時間,可用三腳架固定,或將相機或手靠在穩固的物 體上。

  按快門時要輕柔、穩定。不要用指尖按快門鈕,而是用食指第一節的中 間肉多的部位按快門鈕。

二、小心對焦

  選定主體後,將對焦窗口對準主體,調焦距。注意雙眼相機預視窗(也 是對焦窗)和鏡頭不在同一個地方,對象較近時應該先做適當的位移。如果 不要將攝影主體置於照片的中央,可先把鏡頭對準主體,輕按快門鈕至一半 深度並將手指凍結在那個位置,再將鏡頭移至預訂的中央位置,然後再把快 門鈕按到底。

三、正確曝光

  注意光線是否充足。若非要達成特殊效果,儘可能避免逆光拍照,亦即 應讓光線照在拍攝主體上,拍攝者站在光線來的方向。人像攝影應使用柔和 光源,例如陰天或陰影處。選擇適當的光圈及快門速度。代表快門速度的數 字,其倒數即為快門打開的時間,以秒為單位,例如60表示拍照時快門會打 開六十分之一秒。光圈的大小也是以數字表示,數字越大光圈越小,數字越 小光圈越大,光圈越大進入鏡頭的光線越多(但景深越小,見下節說明)。 光線不足處就要使用閃光燈,但應注意所使用閃光燈的有效距離,一般閃光 燈有效範圍只有三、四公尺。如果萬不得已人物攝影非得在背光的情形下為 之,則請利用閃光燈或反光器把主體人物打亮些。

四、認識景深

  所謂景深,就是當焦距對準某一點,其前後都仍然清晰的範圍。光圈、 鏡頭、及拍照主體的距離是影響景深的重要因素。光圈越大景深越小,光圈 越小景深越大。鏡頭焦距越長景深越小、反之景深越大。主體越近,景深越 小,主體越遠,景深越大。要凸顯主體,最有效的方法就是模糊其週遭,選 擇小的景深即可達到目的。相反的,如果要拍風景,則應選擇大的景深。

五、選定主題及主體

  不同的主題及主體(對象)有不同的處理要點,要先想好拍攝的目的及 主體是什麼。儘量設法排除次要的景物,使它們模糊或淡化,以免喧賓奪主 ,反而模糊了主題。

六、舒適的構圖

  照相畫面的構圖以清爽、自己看起來舒服為準。畫面的美觀標準和畫的 美觀標準大致相同,但相片畫面還可以營造立體的感覺。注意畫面的平衡。 被攝影的主體要大致放在中央,但不一定在正中央,但有特殊目的時不必拘 泥。

七、照相機的保養

 1.不用照相機時,將之保存於「防潮箱」或「防潮盒」中,電子的最好。 切忌置放於衣櫥或書櫃中,因為衣服及書籍都是吸濕性很強的東西。如 果有照相機的皮套子,要和照相機分開保存,因為皮革也是吸濕性很強 的東西。如果準備久久不用,要把相機裡面的電池取出來。

 2.避免相機暴露在極高溫、極低溫或潮濕的環境下。儘量避免將相機遺留 在置於陽光下的汽車內;切忌將相機置於陽光照得到的地方,特別是儀 表板上。

 3.相機應經常維持乾淨,鏡頭要用鏡頭專用的拭紙、布擦拭,或以駱駝毛 拂撢,以免刮傷鏡頭。要去除鏡頭上的塵埃時,最好用吹毛刷,掃撢後 再吹風(Blow),不要用紙或布擦拭,後者還是會刮傷鏡片;不要用嘴 吹風,以免把口水沾上鏡片。需要濕拭鏡片時,要用合格清潔劑,不可 以用酒精之類的強溶劑。

 4.鏡頭上最好加裝保護鏡或濾光鏡(通常是濾紫外線的,鏡片看起來是無 色、全透明的),使鏡頭上的透鏡不直接接觸外面的環境,也可以避免 因經常擦拭而使鏡頭透鏡上的渡膜受損,影響透光性。一片濾光鏡只要 二、三百元,絕對物超所值。

 5.到海邊照相後回家,務必要用軟布沾乾淨的水,將相機全部擦拭一次; 鏡頭的擦拭請參考第三項說明,因為鹽份的吸水性及腐蝕性都非常強。

 6.鏡頭如果發霉,極輕微時應儘速送至合格的照相器材行清洗,切勿自行 拆卸。如果可以清楚看到霉腐蝕鏡頭的樣子時,表示不可能恢復原狀了 ;相機鏡頭是一種非常精密的組件,稍有瑕疵就不可能對得好焦距,因 此這個鏡頭棄之可也,不必浪費錢去修理或清理了。

 7.相機要避免碰撞,應經常存放在有防震設施的容器內。

丙、拍好照片的要訣

一、乾淨的畫面,避免複雜的背景。

二、凸顯主體,不要貪多。畫面中主體大一點,背景小一些或模糊些。

三、看起來舒服的畫面就是好照片

四、發揮創意。例如,有時:逆光可營造透明的感覺;閃光可彌補光線之不足 ,或消除強弱對比太大的不協調。

五、充分利用不同鏡頭的特性。

六、養成多觀察的習慣,把握拍攝的時機。經常拍照,做不同的嘗試,經驗的 累積有助技術的提昇。

七、多接觸好作品、好藝術品,增進藝術品味。

八、沒什麼是不能入鏡的。

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應該是兩個星期前吧

一通未顯示的電話 我不疑有他的接了起來

一位操著大陸口音的小姐加上背景很吵(可見詐騙集團很多人)

接著馬上說我在網拍買的東西好不好用(當然這不是重點)

重點來了 他說我東西收到了 他們錢也收到了沒錯

不過說我不小心按到約定轉帳 變成分期付款 不取消的話會被扣11次

說什麼要由他們那邊去跟銀行做取消的動作

還說有跟銀行簽約(簽你媽啦 簽詐騙約是吧)

反正我一開始就認定你是詐騙的

還跟我講解了好幾次 我還說我自己打去問看看

硬是不讓我打 還強調要他們去取消

最後我說好啊 沒關係給你扣

我想他大概心虛了吧 給我掛電話(我還沒開罵勒 你就掛了 真掃興)

再來上星期又打來一次

還說郵局現在開到9點 要我去郵局取消 說晚點再打給我

我當然說好啊 想騙白我跑一趟(我當然乖乖在家等他打來)

到現在過了好幾天了 還不打來給我罵一下

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昨天去了很久沒去的錢櫃唱歌

果然是很久沒唱了 都不知道要唱啥

雖然都是姐姐和姐夫的朋友 不過都認識哈哈

原來現在錢櫃也有隨你吃到飽

唱完歌已經下午2點半了 大伙討論了一下

決定去太平高巢森活

這個地方我地一次來原來月光森林 法蝶都在這邊

其實這邊也不太遠 我覺得

下次有機會再來這邊逛逛好了

p.s. 可恨啊 相機用時方恨少 下次一定要隨身攜帶

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今天跟包子和沙沙跑到新社去看花海

雖然來過一次新社 不過上次來並沒有花季

其實新社還有好多地方沒去 有空的話一定要把它玩透

一早就出發了 到了之後其實沒有很多人 應該是活動還沒開始的關係吧

雖然之前在福壽山已經看過波斯菊花海了

不過現在花還沒全開 我想我們太早來了

不過既來之 則安之

拍照是一定要的啦

可惜唯一美中不足的是沒有向日葵花海

沒關係 明年應該會有吧 那就明年再去吧

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星期又是到清靜

第一次這麼短的時間到清靜2次

不過這次是跟姐姐姐夫和他們的狗友來的

最主要是來表演的

當然表演是星期日 所以星期六就到小瑞士花園去逛了

星期日表演的時間終於到了 在青青草原 果然是草原啊 都是羊便便

等了好久終於等到狗狗的表演了

我想短期內不會再去清靜了吧 哈哈

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計劃許久的福壽山2日遊終於成行了

等待了4個月的時間

這天很7點半就出門了 這是我第2次騎車騎了這麼遠的路

我們的第一站來到了清靜

休息片刻後 繼續趕路一路邊玩邊騎也看到許多人騎腳踏車 真是佩服他們

中午到了小風口吃著我們的午餐(餅乾和泡麵)

終於在下午三點多到達福壽山農場了

小逛了一下福壽山農場後 吃過晚飯 我們大伙回民宿休息 等待著清晨的到來

第2天的重頭戲來了 波斯菊花海 這應該是我們此行的目的

行程大致上告一段落 也準備打道回府了

回程巧遇了雲瀑 真的很壯觀 第一次這麼近看雲 最後還在雲裡飛奔 真是刺激

這兩天我的里程表總共走了370km 快要可以從台北走到屏東了

大家也都累翻了 我想以後這種機會也不多了吧

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就是今天姐姐人生的大日子

今天我一大早帶著愉悅的心情起床了

就在我起床沒多久竟然也有伴娘到了(也太早了啦)

準備了一下就載著姐姐去化妝了

我想以後也沒這種機會了

等了一個多小時終於化好妆了

果然化完妝的新娘果然特別美

接著火速飛車回家 差點比新郎還慢到家(我的老天爺啊)

趕快換好衣服準備迎取的儀式了

就在這個moment我竟然也有一點感傷

我媽和我姐也哭了起來 原來這種感覺是要自己去體會的

接下來就是坐車到我姐夫家了

用完午餐後回到姐夫家狂拍照 可惜我沒帶來

不過我3點多還是回家一趟開車

終於晚上的宴客時間到了 果然跟訂婚的差好多

姐姐花了好大的心思佈置婚禮會場

而且過程驚喜不斷 真的好用心啊

終於姐姐嫁人了

雖然他平常都不在家 不過突然覺得少了點什麼

不過我還是要祝你們永遠幸福

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就在上個星期六

我們一行人 長廣 廣婆 包子 昌昌 我 5個人驅車前往鹿港

在這裡先感謝長廣的車車了 沒有他我們怎麼到的了呢

我們預計10點左右到達鹿港 不過還是小小的delay了一下

我記得我小時候來過一次就再也沒來過了

尤其是不可思議搜奇博物館前的那個水龍頭

我記憶猶新 我記得以前沒這麼高

而且是用一個甕 上面是一個酒壺的樣子(年代久遠已不可考)

整個早上就在鹿港街上走走停停順便拍拍照(哼 完全沒照行程走)

不過還是很順利的該到的地方都去了

中午去了童年往事吃飯 風格跟香焦新樂園差不多吧

裡面還真的很古早味

用完餐馬上就前往白蘭氏博物館(沒想到賣雞精也能開博物館)

這裡算沒什麼好說的 不過A到一瓶蜆精

入館沒多久我們就往玻璃博物館出發了

沒想到這一天妙妙妙也有來 差一點就要不期而遇了

看完這些美麗的藝術品就知道台灣的玻璃工藝之偉大

再來就是重頭戲了--福寶濕地

這應該是此行的重點吧

一下車就是一股很重的腥味撲鼻而來其中夾帶著莫名的臭味

不過一下子就習慣了

剛到時還沒什麼人 不過漸漸的人變多了

還看到有人在這邊拍婚紗照(臭歸臭 美美的照片比較重要)

接著就是一連串的夕陽拍拍拍

可惜天氣太好一朵雲都沒有 不然照片應該會更美吧

所以沒等到夕陽西下我們就打道回府了

鹿港一日遊 成功!

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