介詞用法口訣
早、午、晚要用in,at黎明、午夜、點與分。
年、月、年月、季節、周,陽光、燈、影、衣、冒in。
將來時態in...以後,小處at大處in。
有形with無形by,語言、單位、材料in。
特徵、方面與方式,心情成語慣用in。
介詞at和to表方向,攻擊、位置、惡、善分。
日子、日期、年月日,星期加上早、午、晚,
收音、農場、值日on,關於、基礎、靠、著論。
著、罷、出售、偷、公、假,故意、支付、相反,准。
特定時日和“一……就”,on後常接動名詞。
年、月、日加早、午、晚,of之前on代in。
步行、驢、馬、玩笑on,cab,carriage則用in。
at山腳、門口、在當前,速、溫、日落、價、核心。
工具、和、同隨with,具有、獨立、就、原因。
就……來說賓譯主,對、有、方狀、表細分。
海、陸、空、車、偶、被by,單數、人類know to man。
this、that、tomorrow,yesterday,next、last、one。
接年、月、季、星期、周,介詞省略已習慣。
over、under正上下,above、below則不然,
若與數量詞連用,混合使用亦無關。‘
beyond超出、無、不能,against靠著,對與反。
besides,except分內外,among之內along沿。
同類比較except,加for異類記心間。
原狀because of,、 owing to、 due to表語形容詞
under後接修、建中,of、from物、化分。
before、after表一點, ago、later表一段。
before能接完成時,ago過去極有限。
since以來during間,since時態多變換。
與之相比beside,除了last but one。
複不定for、找、價、原,對、給、段、去、為、作、贊。
快到、對、向towards,工、學、軍、城、北、上、南。
but for否定用虛擬,複合介詞待後言。
ing型由於鑒,除了除外與包合。
之後、關於、在......方面,有關介詞須記全。
in內to外表位置,山、水、國界to在前。
如大體掌握如上介調用法口訣,就不易出錯。當然,至於介詞的詳盡用法,同形詞又是連詞及副詞等內容此章不講。下面對該口訣分別舉例幫助你理解消化。
早、午、晚要用in
例:in the morning 在早上
in the afternoon 在下午
in the evening 在晚上
in the day 在白天
at黎明、午、夜、點與分
例: at dawn, at daybreak 在黎明時候
at noon 在中午
at night 在夜間
at midnight 在午夜
以上短語都不用冠詞
at six o'clock 在6點鐘
at 7:30 (seven thirty) 在7點半
at half past eleven 在11點半
at nine fifteen 在9點15分
at ten thirty a.m. 在上午10點30分
也可以寫成
seven to five 5點差7分(半小時以上)
five minutes after two 2點過5分
at a quarter to two 1點45分
at the weekend 在週末
年、月、年月、季節、周
即在“來年”,在“某月”,在“某年某月” (但在某年某月某
日則用on),在四季,在第幾周等都要用in。
例;in 1986 在1986年
in 1927 在1927年
in April 在四月
in March 在三月
in December 1986 1986年12月
in July l983 1983年7月
in spring 在春季 in summer 在夏季
in autumn 在秋季 in winter 在冬季
in the fist week of this semester 這學期的第一周
in the third week 在第三周
陽光、燈、影、衣、冒 in,
即在陽光下,在燈下,在樹陰下,穿衣、著裝、冒雨等都要用in。
例:Don't read in dim light. 切勿在暗淡的燈光下看書。
They are reviewing their lessons in the bright light. 他們在明亮的燈光下復習功課。
They are sitting in the shade of a tree. 他們坐在樹陰下乘涼。
a prisoner in irons 帶著鐐銬的囚犯
He went in the rain to meet me at the station. 他冒雨到車站去接我。
The poor dressed (clothed) in rags in old society. 舊社會窮人們衣衫襤褸.
以及:in the bright sunlight 在明亮的陽光下
a merchant in disguise 喬裝的商人
the woman in white (black, red, yellow) 穿著白(黑、紅、黃)色衣服的婦女
in uniform 穿著制服
in mourning 穿著喪服
in brown shoes 穿著棕色鞋
in his shirt sleeves 穿著襯衫
將來時態in...以後
例: They will come back in 10 days. 他們將10天以後回來。
I'll come round in a day or two. 我一兩天就回來。
We'll be back in no time. 我們一會兒就回來。
Come and see me in two days' time. 兩天後來看我。(從現在開始)
after... (從過去開始)
小處at大處in
例:Li and I arrived at Heishan county safe and sound, all is well. Don't worry. 李和我平安地到達黑山縣,一切很好,勿念。
I live in a great city (big city), my sister lives at a small town while my parents live at a village. 我住在大城市,我姐姐住在一個小城鎮,而我的父母則住在農村。
I'm in Liaoning, at Anshan. 我住在遼寧省鞍山市.
有形with無形by,語言 、單位、材料in
例:The workers are paving a road with stone. 工人們正用石子鋪路。(有形)
The teacher is correcting the paper with a new pen. 這位教師正用一支新筆批改論文。(有形)
"Taking Tiger Mountain by Strategy" is a good opera. <<智取威虎山>>是—出好戲。(無形)
The product is separated by distilation into gasoline and gas oil. 這種產品是用蒸餾分離出氣油和粗柴油。 (表示方式、手段、方法——無形)
I really can't express my idea in English freely in-deed. 我確實不能用英語流利地表達我的思想。 (表示某種語言用in)
I wrote a novel in Russian. 我用俄語寫了一本小說。(同上)
The kilometer is the biggest unit of length in the metric system. 公里是米制中最長的長度單位。 (表示度、量、衡單位的用in )
The length is measured in meter, kilometre, and centimetre. 長度是以米、公里、釐米為單位來計算的。(同上)
This board was cast in bronze not in gold. 這個牌匾是銅鑄的,不是金鑄的。
特徵、方面與方式、心情、成語慣用in
特徵或狀態:
例: The Democratic Party was then in power. 那時民主黨執政。
They found the patient in a coma. 他們發現病人處於昏迷狀態。
He has not been in good health for some years. 他幾年來身體一直不好。
Many who came in despair went away in hope. 許多人帶著絕望情緒而來,卻滿懷希望而去。
The house was in ruins. 這房屋成了廢墟。
The poor girl was in tears. 這個貧苦女孩淚流滿面。
Her clothes were in rags. 她的衣跟穿破了。
His shoes were in holes. 他的鞋穿出窟窿了。
I only said it in fun. 我說這話只是開玩笑的。
She spoke in grief rather than in anger. 與其說她講得很氣憤,不如說她講得很傷心。
還有一些短語也用in,如:
in jest 詼諧地,in joke 開玩笑地,in spite 惡意地, in fairness 公正地,in revenge 報復, in mercy 寬大,in sorrow 傷心地等。
His mind was in great confusion. 他腦子裏很亂。
Today everybody is in high spirits and no one is in low ebb. 今天大家都興高采烈,沒有一個情緒低落的。
She and her classmates are in flower ages. 她和她的同學都正值妙齡。
The compaign was in full swing. 運動正值高潮中。
方面:
例:we accepted the item in principle. 我們在原則上接受了這個條款。
They are never backward in giving their views. 他們從來不怕發表自己的意見。
The backward area has achieved self-sufficient in grain. 這個落後的地區在糧食方面已能自給。
A good teacher must be an example in study. 一個好的教師必須是學習的模範。
方式:
例:All the speeches were taken down in shorthand. 所有報告都用速記記錄下來了。

要想續結果, 下回書
:em27:
:em27:接上回書!
The Party has always educated us in the spirit of patriotism and internationalism. 黨一貫以愛國主義和國際主義精神教育我們。
如下成語慣用in
例如: in all 總計
in advance 事前
in the meantime 與此同時
in place 適當地
in hopes of(或in the hope of) 懷著.......希望
in connection with 和……有關
in contact with 和……聯繫
in addition to 除......以外
in case of 倘若,萬一
in conflict with 和......衝突
in force 有效的,大批
in depth 徹底地
in regard to 關於
in the neighborhood of 大約、鄰近
in retrospect 回顧,一想起
in behalf of 代表......利益
in the least 一點,絲毫
in alarm 驚慌、擔心
in the opinion of 據……見解
in the long run 從長遠說來
in one's opinion 在……看來
in word 口頭上
in a word 總之
in vain 無益地, 白白地
in case 如果,萬一,以防
in detail 詳細地
in haste 急急忙忙地
in conclusion 總之
in spite of 儘管
in other words... 換句話說
in return 作為回報
in the name of 以......名義
be confident in 對......有信心
be interested in 對......感興趣
in doubt 懷疑
in love 戀愛中
in debt 負債
in fun (jest、joke) 玩笑地
in hesitation 猶豫不決
in wonder 在驚奇中
in public (secret) 公開他(秘密地)
in a good humour 心情(情緒)好
“介詞at、to表方向,攻擊、位置、善、惡、分”。
介詞at和to都可以表示方向; 用at表示方向時,側重於攻擊的目標,往往表示惡意;用to表示方向時,突出運動的位置或動作的物件,側重表示善意。試比較下列各句:
1. A.She came at me. 她向我撲過來。
B.She came to me. 她向我走過來。
2.A.Jake ran at John. 傑克向約翰撲過去。
B.Jake ran to John. 傑克朝約翰跑去。
3.A. He rushed at the woman with a sword. 他拿著劍向那婦女撲過去。
B. He rushed to the woman with a sword. 他帶著劍向那婦女跑過去。
4.A.He shouted at the old man. 他大聲喝斥那老人。
B. He shouted to the old man. 他大聲向那老人說
5.A.I heard her muttering at Xiao Li. 我聽見她在抱怨小李。
B.I heard her muttering to Xiao Li. 我聽見她在同小李低聲說話。
6.A. She talked at you just now. 她剛才還說你壞話呢。
B.She talked to you just now. 她剛才還同你談話呢.
7.A.She threw a bone at the dog. 她用一塊骨頭砸狗。
B.She threw a bone to the dog. 她把一塊骨頭扔給狗吃。
8.A.He presented a pistol at me. 他用手槍對著我。
B.He presented a pistol to me. 他贈送我一支手槍。
日子、日期、年月日,星期加上早午晚; 以下皆用on。
例: on Octorber the first 1949 1949年10月1日
on February the thirteenth l893 1893年2月13日
on May the first 5月1日
on the first 1號
on the sixteenth 16號
on the second of January 或 on January the second 1月2日
on a summer evening 在夏天的一個夜晚
on Boxing Day 在節禮日(耶誕節次日)
on New Year's Day 在元旦
on my birthday 在我的生日
但 in the Christmas holidays在耶誕節假期; in the eighteenth century 在十八世紀; in ancient times 在古代; in earlier times 在早期; in modern times 在現代,則用in,the present time 現在,at the present day當今則用at。
on May Day 在“五•一”節
on winter day 在冬天
on Decenber 12th 1950 l950年12月12日
on Sunday 在星期天
on Monday 在星期一
on Tuesday morning 星期二早晨
on Saturday afternoon 星期六下午
on Friday evening 星期五晚上
但last night 昨夜;in the evening 在晚上; on time準時,in time及時,等則不同。
年月日,加早午晚,of之前on代in
例: on the morning of 18th 18日早晨
on the evening of 4th 4日晚上
On the eve of their departure they gave a farewell banquet and their head gave a garewell speech. 他們在臨行前夕舉行了一次告別宴會,他們的團長發表了告別講話。
收音、農場,值日on
例:Did your supervisor like the story over (or on) the radio last night?
您的導師喜歡昨天從收音機裏聽到的故事嗎?
I heard the news over (or on) the radio. 我從收音機裏聽到了這一條消息。
talk over the radio 由無線電播音
on TV 從電視裏......
hear something on the wireless 在無線電裏聽到
My brother works on an Army reclamation farm. 我哥哥在一個軍墾農場工作。
The students are working on a school farm. 學生們正在校辦農場勞動。
This is a farmer's house on a farm. 這是農場的農舍。
Who is on duty, tody? 今天誰值日?
We go on duty at 8 a.m. 我們上午8點鐘上班。
關於、基礎、靠、著論
例: This afternoon we are going to listen to a report on the international situation. 今天下午我們要聽關於國際形勢的報告。
Professor Shen will give us a talk on travelling in America. 申教授將給我們做關於美國之行的報告。
You are wrong on all these issues. 在這些問題上你的看法都錯了。
The belief is based on practical experience. 這種信念是以實際經驗為基礎的。
Theory must be based on practice. 理論必須以實踐為基礎。
The people in the south live on rice. 南方人主食大米。(靠)
The citizens live on their salaries. 城市人靠薪金生活。
You can't afford luxuries, on an income of 100 yuan a month. 靠月薪100元的收入,你是買不起奢侈品的。
Her pet dogs were fed on the choicest food. 她用精飼料餵養她心愛的狗。
He is just a scrounger, who lives on other people. 他正是一個小偷,專靠損害別人過日子。
Keep the kettle on the boil (=boiling). 讓水壺的水一直開著。
The enemy are on the run (=running). 敵人在逃跑。
on後接the加上一個作名詞的動詞.其意義與現在分詞所表達的相近。類似例子很多如:
on the march在行軍中,on the mend 在好轉中,on the prowl徘徊,on the move活動中,on the scrounge巧取豪奪(埋語),on the go活躍,忙碌,on the lookout注意, 警戒,on the watch監視著。on the hop趁不備抓住某人等等。
on the People's Democratic Dictatorship<<實踐論>>和<<矛盾論>>
on the People's Democratic Dictatorship<<論人民民主專政>>
"on Coalition Government" <<論聯合政府>>
著、罷、出售、偷、公、假,故意、支付,相反、准
注:口訣中的“著”是指著火,罷指罷工,偷指偷偷地,公指出差、辦公事;假指休假,准指準時。
例:The house next to mine was on fire. 我鄰居的房子著火了。
The workers of the railway station were on strike. 鐵路工人罷工了。
Grapes and big water melons from Sinkiang are on sale on a large sale. 新疆葡萄和西瓜大量上市了。
do something on the sly (quiet). 秘密地(暗地裏,偷偷地)做某事。
I've come here on business. 我是有公事來的。
They went to Bern on a mission. 他們到伯爾尼去執行一項使命。
They has been away on a long trip. 他們出去做一次長途旅行。
I'll go home on leave next month. 下月我將休假回家。
I went on business to Shanghai. I did not take leave. 我是公出去上海的,不是不告而別。
She came to see you on purpose. 她是專程來看你的。
He came here on purpose to discuss it with you. 他到這來是要與你討論這件事的。
This lunch is on me.
"No. let's go Dutch."
“這頓午飯我付錢。”
“不,還是各付各的。”
On the contrary, it was very easy to understand. 相反,這事兒很容易理解。
P1ease come on time. (on schedule). 請準時來。
注:in time是“及時”的意思。
The train arrived on schedule. 火車準時到達。
特定時間和“一……就”,左右on後動名詞
例:Gases expand on heating and contract on cooling. 氣體加熱時膨脹,冷卻時收縮。(特定時間)
On entering the room, he found his friends dancing in high spirits. 一進屋,他就發現他的朋友們在愉快地跳舞。
On reaching the city he called up Lao Yang. 一到城裏他就給老楊打了一個電話。
I'll write to him on hearing from you. 我接到你的來信就給他寫信。(一……就)
以及on the left, right向左向右,on the stair在臺階上等。
步行、驢、馬、玩笑on,cab,carriage用in
例:On foot步行; on horse騎馬; on donkey 騎驢。
He rode on, blood flowing from his side. 他騎著馬,鮮血從腰部流下來。
The soldier of the Eighth Route Army rode 100 li on a horse a day in order to catch up with his unit. 為趕上部隊,那位八路軍戰士騎馬日行百里。
Go on horse back! 騎馬去!
You are having me on! 你和我開玩笑呢!
in cab和in carriage 不能用on或by cab或carrige。

at山腳、門口在當前,速、溫、日落價核心
即在山腳下、在門口、在目前,速度、以……速率、溫度、在日落時、在……核心要用at。
例:At the foot of the mountain, there are thirty of our comrades. 在山腳下,有我們30個同志。
There is a beautiful lake at the foot of the hill. 山腳下有一個美麗的湖。
At the gate of the house there are many children playing glassball. 門口有一大群孩子在玩玻璃球。
Who's standing there at the door? 誰站在門口?
I don't need the dictionary at present. 我現在還不需要這本詞典。
He is at present in Washington. 他目前正在華盛頓。
The train runs at fifty kilometres an hour. 火車每小時行駛50公里。
we built the plant at top speed and minimun cost. 我們以最低的投資,最高的速度修建了該工廠。
at home 在國內,在家裏
at ten degrees centigrade 在攝氏10度
at minus ten degrees centigrade 攝氏零下10度
Water freezes at 0°centigrade. 水在鑷氏零度結冰。
Water usually boils at 100°. 水通常在攝氏100度沸騰。
at zero 在零度
at the rate of 45 miles an hour
at full speed 全速
at a good price 高價
at a low cost 低成本
at a great cost 花了很大代價
at that time 在當時
Evaporation takes place at all tempertures. 蒸發在任何溫度下都能發生。
at 1000RPM (revolution per minute) 每分鐘1000轉
at a high speed 高速
The soldiers launched an attack upon the enemy at sunset. 戰士們在日落時對敵人發起了攻擊。
at daybreak 日出時
The force at the core leading our cause forward is the Chinese Communist Party. 領導我們事業的核心力量是中國共產黨。
The atom has a nucleus at its core. 在原子的中心有一個原子核。
At the beginning of this term the teacher in charge of our class was very strict with us. 這學期開始,我們的班主任老師對我們要求非常嚴格。

下回書再續! :em27:
接上回書! :em27:
以及At the first session of the First National People's congress of the People's Republic of China. 在中華人民共和國第一次全國人民代表大會第一次會議上.
常用的at短語有:
at first 首先,開始時
at least 至少
at all events 無論如何
at home 在家,無拘束
at one stroke 一下子
at a loss 不知怎辦
at any rate 不管怎樣
at length 詳細地
be at high tide 處於高潮期
at our invitation 應我們的邀請
at our request 應我們的請求
at the news 聽到這消息
at the risk of 冒......危險
at a great expense 以巨大費用
at a stroke 一舉
at intervals of 每隔
at liberty 有權,隨意
at the sight of 一見到
at the point of 接近,靠近
at the thought of 一想到
at the speed of 以......速度
at the cost (price) of 以......為代價
at leisure 閑著、失業
at the disposal of 任憑……使用
at stake 在危險中、在成敗關頭
at bottom 實際上、本質上
at short notice 一得到通知
at seeing us 看到我們
at the happy tidings 聽到喜訊
at sixteen 在16歲時
at the present stage 在現階段
at the weekend 週末
at all times 永遠
at 405 Victory Road 在勝利路405號
工具、同、和、隨with,具有,獨立、就、原因
例:We write with ballpens. 我們用油筆寫字。(工具)
但He write in blue ink. 他用藍水筆寫字(墨水用in不用with)
Theory must go hand in hand with practice. 理論必須同實踐相結合。(同)
He is talking with friends. 他正同朋友們談話。〔同)
I'd like to have a dinner with a friend. 我喜歡同朋友共同進餐。
We must co-operate closely with them. 我們必須同他們緊密合作。(同)
We, as human beings are going to leave, but friendship has taken roots among us and our hearts are linked with yours. 我們雖然就要走了,但是友誼卻在我們之間紮了根,我們的心和你們的心是緊緊相連的。(和或同〕
A cadre must become one with the masses.幹部必須和群眾打成一片。
I'm with you. 我同意你。
An atom is so small that we can't see it with a microscope. 原子太小,即使用顯微鏡也看不見它。(工具)
In the past I had to part with my wife. 舊社會我不得不和妻子離別。(和)
The socialist revolution is deepening with each passing day. 社會主義革命日益深入。(隨著)
They sail with the wind. 他們順風航行。(隨著)
With the change of the economic foundation, the superstructure has to be transformed too. 隨著經濟基礎的改變,上層建築也必須改變。(隨著)
With the battlle of Waterloo, Napoleon's rule in Europe was ended. 滑鐵盧一戰,拿破崙對歐洲的統治就完蛋了。
The modern electron tube. 隨著電子管的發明而誕生了現代電子工業.
She is with child. = She is in a very interesting condition. = in a family way, = She is pregnant (in pregnancy). 她懷孕了。(有)
但She is with a child.意為:“她領著一個孩子。”
China is a very large country with a long history. 中國是一個歷史悠久的大國。(具有)
China is a country with a population of ten billion people. 中國是一個有10億人口的國家。(具有)
What is the matter with you? 怎麼回事?(就,關於)
How is it with you? 你怎麼啦?(就,關於)
Everything was going well with them. 他們一切都進行得很順利。(就……)
It is a very intense flash with a lot of power packed into it. 由於聚集了大量的能,所以閃光非常強烈。(獨立結構)
注;即分詞獨立主格結構用with。
With a new welding technique introduced, the use of stainless steel was no longer limited to making small things only. 由於新的焊接技術的引進,不銹鋼的使用就不僅僅局限在微小的物件上了。(獨立結構)
With all its beams advancing in step with each other the laser possessed very particular properties which no ordinary light ever has. 由於鐳射的光束同步,所以它具有普通光所沒有的特殊性質。(獨立結構)
Without the temperature or pressure changed matter can never change from one state into another. 沒有溫度或壓力的變化,物質永遠不能以一種狀態變到另一種狀態。(獨立結構)
The evil landlord was trembling with fear. 那個萬惡的地主嚇得渾身發抖。(原因)
My wife's hands were rough with work. 我愛人因為老幹活,手很租糙。(原因).
With the help of my classmate's taperecorder I listen to the Voice of America and B.B.C every day. 借助於我同學的答錄機,我每天收聽美國之音和B.B.C。(原因)
With televition, we can see all kinds of programmes on the screen sitting at home without going to the movies and theatres. 因為有了電視,我們坐在家裏就能看到各種節目, 而不必去影院、戲院了。(原因)
就......來說賓譯主,對、有、方狀、表細分
這裏的with後邊的賓語常譯成主語。
例:How are the things with you? 你情況怎樣?
What's wrong with your eyes? 你的眼睛怎麼啦?
Something is wrong with my hands. 我手出點毛病。
Everything was going well with them. 他們一切都進行得很順利。
Parents must be strict with their children. 父母對子女要嚴格。(對)
The doctor was very patient with his patients. 那位醫生對患者非常耐心。(對)
I'm quite satisfied with your answer. 我對你的回答很滿意。(對)
Many intellectuals with revolutionary tendencies went to the liberated areas. 許多帶有革命傾向的知識份子都投奔解放區了。(有)
These apartment houses are for workers with families. 這些住宅樓是給有家屬的工人蓋的。
He was sitting in a chair with his hands folded. 他兩手交叉在胸前坐在椅子上。(狀語)獨立結構
They are highly mechanized farms, with machinery to do all the work. 它們是高度機械化的農場,所有工作都由機器進行。(狀語)獨立結構
上兩句是with引出的複合結構。
I will be with you again in half an hour. 過半個鐘頭我還會跟你們在一起的。
(with的介詞短語作表語。另注意in將來時態in以後)
Our sympathies were with the students persecuted by the gang of four during the cultural revolution. 我們是非常同情“文革”中被“四人幫”迫害的青年學生的。(with的介詞短語作表語)。
海、陸、空、車、偶、被by,單數人類known to man
例: by land (air, sea, water, bus)
陸路(航空,水陸,水路,乘公共汽車)
by micro bus 坐小麵包車(微型汽車)
by mini bus 坐小麵包車
by train 坐火車
by trolley bus 坐無軌電車
by tram 坐有軌電車
by bike 騎自行車
by motor car 騎摩托車
by tube 坐地鐵
by airbus 坐大型客機(空中汽車〕
by jeep 坐吉普車
by chance 偶然
by accident 偶然,無意中
以及by virture of 靠、由於
by leaps and bounds 大幅度地
by way of 經由
by the book 按常規
The list of discoveries by "accident" could fill a long book. 偶然的發現可以寫一本很厚的書。(偶然)
The law of relativity was formulated by Einstein. 相對論是愛因斯坦創立的。(被動)
The book was written by Mr. Zhang. 這本書是張先生寫的。(被動)
That in 1969 the first artificial satellite was launched to the space is known to man. 1969年第一顆人造衛星上了天是眾所周知的。
這裏用to man而不用by。即當單數又無冠詞的man和known搭配時,表示人類不用by。
this,that,tomorrow,yesterday,next, last, one
接年、月、季、星期、周,介詞省略已習慣
例;一天one day (不說on one day)
one summer 在一個夏天
one year 一年
Iast nieht 昨天夜裏
last Friday 上個星期五
last month 上月
last year 去年
yesterday afternoon 昨天下午
tomorrow afternoon 明天下午
tomorrow evening 明天晚上
next month 下個月
next week 下周
next year 明年
next Saturday 下星期六
this morning 今天早晨
this year 今年
this Tuesday 本星期二
this Autumn 今年秋天
that morning 那天早上
that evening 那天晚上
無論前面介詞in、on還是at,通通可省略,不能說at last night, on last Friday, in last month, in this year這些都是不對的,須去掉介詞。
over, under正上下,above, below則不然
若與數量詞連用,混合使用亦無關
例:There is a picture over the window.
窗戶上面有一幅畫。(正上方)
The plane flew above the city. 飛機飛過城市上空。(高於城市並非正上方)
A lamp was hanging over the table. 一盞燈是在方桌上方。(正上方)
The moon was now above the trees in the east. 這時月亮已經在東邊樹林的上方。(非正上方)
Don't stand above the masses. 勿高踞於群眾之上。(比喻一非正上方)
The mountain is 700 feet above sea level. 這座山海拔700米。(非正上方)
There is a small building below the hill. 山下有座小樓房。(非正下方)
There is a submarine under the water. 水下有艘潛水艇。(正下方)
Water was found ten feer below the surface. 在地面下10英尺處找到了水。(非正下方)
The peasants are cooling themselves under the trees. 農民們正在樹下乘涼。(正下方)
over under正上下,低高below與above
The temperature in the room is below (or under) 30℃. 室溫是攝氏30度以下。(數量詞兩者皆可)
Do you have anything in the way of computers below (under) $10000? 你們有哪些價格低於10000美元的電腦? (數量詞兩者皆可〕
beyond超出、無、不能
例:It's quite beyond me (It is more than I can understand). 這我完全不懂。
Don't stay out beyond 10 o'clock. 不要在外呆到10點以後還不回家。
But the gratitude from the bottom of my heart to the students and my old colleagues, has gone beyond my control. 發自肺腑的對學生們和我的老同事們的感激之心使我毫不緊張,毫不拘束;
Your work is beyond all praise, so good that it can't be praised enough. 你的成績是讚揚不盡的。
That is going beyond a joke, passes the limits of what is reasonable as a joke. 那樣開玩笑太過火了。
They were touched beyond words. 他們被感動得無法形容。(無)
To do this was quite beyond all doubts. 辦這事我無能為力。(超出)
This is inevitable and beyond all doubts. 這是必然的,毫無疑義的。(無)
另外, Beyond two cottages stood his house.
句子中的beyond是“那邊”的意思。
against 靠著,對與反
例: In front of the wardrobe there are two upholstered armchairs arranged against the south wall near the door. 立櫃前面是兩把沙發椅,靠著南城門附近。 (靠著)
She leaned wearily against the railings. 她疲憊地靠著欄杆站著。(靠著)
A new president was elected by a majority of 274 votes against 110. 新總統以274票對110票的多數當選。(對……)
besides, except分內外,among之內along沿
例:The design has many other advantages besides lower cost. 除費用低外,該設計還有許多其他優點。(優點包括在內)
He had no time to prepare his lecture, besides which he was unwell. 他沒有時間準備講稿,而且他的身體也不大舒適。
Every one of us, except her, went to see the exhibition. 除她外,我們都去參觀了展覽會。
He gets up early every day except Sunday. 除星期日外他每天早起。
Nobody was late except me. 除我以外,沒人遲到。

同類比較except,加for異類記心間。
He's composition is good, except for some spelling mistakes. 他的這篇作文寫得很好,只是有幾處拼寫錯誤。(非同類比較用except for)
She was all alone in the world except for an old aunt. 除了有一個老姑媽,她別無親人。
Anna felt disappointed when she found out they had gone swimming without her. (without=except) 當安娜發現除她外,他們都去游泳了,她感到很失望。
Lion Head Hill is not worth seeing except for its old temples. 除了那些古寺以外,獅頭山沒什麼可看的。
Among other things, we are interested in drawing. 我們對圖畫和別的一些東西很感興趣。 (among之內即包括在內)
原狀because of, owing to, due to表語形容詞
例:Owing to our joint efforts, the task was fulfilled ahead of schedule. 由於我們的共同努力,任務提前完成了。
注:Owing to 和 because of 都做原因狀語,而due to只能做表語形容詞。所以此句。owing to 的介詞短語做原因狀語。
AII our achievements are due to the correct leadership of our Party. 我們的一切成績都歸功於黨。 (due to做表語形容詞)
under後接修、建中,of,from物化分
例:The road is under repair now. 這條路正在修建中。
The now railway is stil under construction. 新鐵路尚在修築中。(不能用in)
under discussion 在討論中(不能用in) under considerat 在考慮中(不能用in)
The desk is made of wood. 桌子是木頭做的。(物理變化用of)
The wine is made from grape. 這種酒是用葡萄釀造的。(化學變化)
The bridge is made of steel. 這座橋是鋼制的。(物理變化)
Steel is made from iron. 鋼是由鐵煉成的。(化學變化)

before, after 表一點,ago, later表示一段
即before, after常表示一個點的時間狀語,而ago,later常表示一段的時間狀語。
例如:前天the day before yesterday;前年the year before last; 大上星期the week before last等等都表示點狀語的。要想準確無誤地使用好before和ago, after和later比較困難,但要是以“點”和“段”來區別就容易得多。
例:晚飯前 before supper
解放前 before liberation
1970年前 before 1970
文革前 before cultural revolution
國慶前 before National Day
入大學前 before coming to college
這些都是“點”狀語,因為1970年前即1970年1月1
日前。國慶日即10月1日前。
ago表示一段時間。
例:一分鐘前 a minute ago
半小時前 half an hour ago
兩天前 two days ago
一星期前 a week ago
五年前 five years ago
因為 a minute, half an hour, two days, a week, five years等都表示一段時間,所以用ago。以及ten days later等皆如此。
before可接完成時,ago過去級有限
這時的before是連詞(也可做介詞)
例:We had scarcely left our school before it began to rain. 我們剛離開學校,天就下雨了。(完成時)
I had studied French for four months before I came here. 我來這兒以前就已學了四個月法語了。 (before接完成時)
He fell ill three days ago. 他病了三天了。(ago則只能接動詞過去式,同時注意瞬間動詞的問題。)
He left two months ago. 兩個月前他離開了。(同上)
I met her a few minutes ago. 我在幾分鐘前碰到他了。(同上)
since以來during間,since時態多變換
與之相比beside, 除了last but one。
即beside的一般用法是“在......旁邊", 但還有"和......相比”等特殊用法。
例:I feIt so weak in spoken English beside them. 和他們相比,我感到我的口語太差。
Beside work and study, all else was trivial. 同工作和學習比起來,其他一切都是小事。
除了last but one,即but多指“除了”的意思,也有“倒數第幾”的意思。last but one即不是最後一個。
例:I haven't told anybody but one. 除了我愛人,我誰也沒告訴。(除了)
Who but a fool would study foreign language well if he is a hard working one. 如果他勤奮好學的話,除了傻瓜誰都能學好外語。 (除了)
Look at the last page but one. 請看倒數第2頁。
He was the last but three in maths examination this time. 他這次數學考試成績倒數第四。
They live in the next house but one. 他們住在隔壁過去一家。
複不定for、找,價,原,對,給,段,去,為,作,贊
複不定for,即用for引出的不定式複合結構,也就是for加名(代)加不定式;找,意為找到,提供; 價,意為價格、工資;原,意為原因;段,意為時間或距離; 去,意為去某地或開往某地;作,意為作為; 贊,意為贊成(用於系表結構。)
例:It is high time for us to start. 我們不該再遲延了。
The most urgent thing is for us to get the preparation done. 員重要的事情是我們要把準備工作做好。
I don't think it advisable for him to study medicine. 我想她學醫不適合。
Your parents and relatives are anxious for you to go to college. 你的父母和親戚渴望你上大學。
My home town has changed too much for me to recognize. 我的家鄉變化太大,簡直認不出來了。
以上例句都是for在不定式複合結構中的用法。
Someone is asking for you on the telephone. 有人找你接電話。(找)
You'd better write to me for more information about it. 如需更多這方面的資科和資訊,你最好給我寫信。(提問,索要)
They worked in the company for 200 yuan a month. 他們在這個公司幹活,每月嫌200元。(價格)
How much did you pay for the second-hand colour TV? 這台用過的彩電你花了多少錢2(價格)
Thank you very much for your coming. 謝謝您的光臨。〔原因)
Thank you for your warm hospitality. 謝謝您的熱情款待。(原因)
Forgive me for being tardy. 請原諒我遲到了。(原因)
I'm much obliged to you for telling me. 非常感謝你給我談了這個情況。(原因)
We have boundless admiration for your struggle. 對你們酌鬥爭我們無限欽佩。(對)
Listening comprehension materials are good for training our minds. 聽力材料對訓練我們的腦子根有好處。(對)
Take the bitter medicine. It's good for you. 吃下這藥吧,對你有好處。(對)
There is a telegram for Mr. Wang. 這有一份王先生的電報。(給)
May I use it for a minute? 我用一會兒好嗎?(一段時間)
I followed the stealer for some distance. 我跟蹤那個小愉一段路。(一段距離)
The ship was for Dalian. 這破船開往大連。(去某地)
We are off for Shanghai tomorrow. 明天我們去上海。(去某地)
The medicine is for reducing your temperature. 這藥是退燒的。(為……目的)
After breakfast. I'll go for a stroll round the town. 吃完飯我要在城裏到處走走。(為……目的)
I'll keep the lighter given by a foreign friend for a souvenir. 我要把外賓送給我的打火機作為紀念。(作為)
It is only meant for a joke. 這只是當笑話說說罷了。(作為)
We are all for cutting down the cost of production. 我們都贊成降低生產成本。(贊成)
快到、對、向towards,工、學、軍、城、上、北、南
例:It's getting on towards the end of term now. 現在已快到學期未了。(快到)
Towards midnight my husband came back. 快到半夜了我的丈夫才回來。(快到)
Our teacher was very lenient towards us. 我們的老師對我們很松。(對)
What you have invented is really a big contribution towards our company. 你所發明的對我們公司確實是一大貢獻。(對)
The boy came running towards his mother. 那個男孩向他母親跑去。(向著)
所謂工、學、軍、城、上、北、南,是說up和down的用法。這也是漢英翻譯時要注意的。例如:招工,上大學,參軍,進城,上山,向北方等都屬於up。而相反的下鄉,向南,落榜等都屬於down。“大軍南下,北上抗日”大概由此而來。
but for 否定用虛擬,複合介詞待後言。
but for是“若不是”的意思。
例:But for our great Communist Party, we could never have today's happiness. 若沒有偉大的共產黨,我們決不會有今天的幸福生活。
But for this chemical the vapour inside the system would not have been absorbed so completely. 若沒有這個化學劑的作用,系統內的蒸氣不可能被吸收得這麼徹底。
but for將在虛擬語氣中詳講。
以上講到了某些常用介詞in用法,但遠遠不夠,就拿做插入語的介詞短語來說就數不勝數。以下固定搭配不可隨意改動:
例:in general 一般說來
in short 簡言之
in other words 換言之
in my opinion 依我看
in simple words 簡言之
on the whole 基本上
for instance 例如
for short 簡稱
after all 畢竟
above all 首先
此外考試中常出現的成語前置詞也須牢記其用法。
by appearance 從外表
by the atd of 借……的幫助
by far ……得多
by course of ......照......常例
by reason of 由於
by request 應邀
by right of 由於 憑藉
out of date 過時
out of harmony with 與...... 不一致
out of harmony with 擺脫困境
out of bounds 超出許可權
out of proportion to 與......不相稱
out of reach 力量不及
out of one's wits 不知所措
out of question 沒問題
out of the question 不可能的
to a great extent 很大程度上
Io one's taste 合......胃口
to one's thinking 據……看來
to one's heart's content 盡情地
to the utmost 盡力
behind schedule 不準時
behind the times 過時的
behind the curtain 在幕後
within reach 能力所及
within a hair's breadth 差—點
wlthin a stone's throw of 在附近
beyond description 無法形容
beyond reason 毫無道理
beyond reproach 無可指責
beyond one's expectation 超出......範圍
beyond expression 無法表達
ing型由於、鑒,除了,除外與包含。
之後,關於,在……方面,有關介詞須記全。
最後,英語中v.+ing分詞轉化而成的特殊介詞,更須注意,根據其語法功能,把它們同現在分詞,動名詞和連同區分開來。即:
respecting由於, 鑒於; considering 由於, 鑒於; excepting除了; concerning關於; excepting for除外; excluding除外; without excepting sb. 包含; including 包括,包含; following 在……之後; regarding 關於; respecting 在......方面; concerning 有關;
例:considering 由於;
Considering that table salt is the commonest source of sodium in food, the diet usually calls for eating salt-free foods. 由於食鹽是鈉在食物中普遍的來源,醫生給病人規定的,飲食通常要求吃無鹽食品。
respecting鑒於:
Respecting the heavy rain, we had to put off the match. 鑒於下大雨,我們不得不推遲了這場比賽。
excepting 除了:
excepting 可單獨使用,可以與always或否定詞not 連用,也可以與for, without 之類介詞連用。
Excepting one of his close friends, they were present at the party. 除了他的一個摯友外,他們都來赴宴了。
He is an honest man, excepting for his quick temper. 他是個老實人,只是("除了" 脾氣暴躁。(同類比較except,加for異類記心間)。
Everybody is in higt spirits, always excepting him. 大家都情緒高昂,唯他"除外"(例外)。
Only a few survivors without excepting him were living in the settlement. 包括他在內,只有幾個倖存者住在新拓居地。
including包含:
The new apartment consists of three rooms including the kitchen. 這套公寓有三間,包括廚房。
following 在......之後: 相當於after
The week following his first vist to the newsroom he was appointed editor of the important column. 在拜訪該報社編輯部的"第二個"星期,他放任命為該報重要專欄的主筆。
regarding 關於:相當於about
Regarding research investment and number of researchers engaged in this field of research, the U.S.A. commands an overwhelming position followed by Japan. "關於"投入該領域研究的投資額和研究人員的數量,美國占壓倒優勢,其次是日本。
respectiong 在……方面:
Respectiong education, health, medical care as well as production and labor technological development will have to be evaluated with due thought given to social systems and humanism. "在"教育、衛生、生產勞動"方面", 評價技術的發展需根據社會制度和人道主義。
concerning 有關:
The following are some of the arguments both pros and cons concerning computers, thinking, and artificial intelligence. 下面是“有關”電腦、思維和人工智慧方面持贊成和反對態度的一些論據。
當然,這些ing型的介詞,在句子中也有分詞、動名詞和連詞的語法功能。 excluding 和 including,表示排除與包含。
Last year British sales to the rigion were more than $8 billion, while French exports, excluding arms brought in around $3 billion. 去年,英國對這個地區的銷售額達80多億美元,而法國的出口額(武器除外)約為30億美元。
Stress may deplete vitamin C in your body, as can smoking, drinking and a variety of drugs, not excepting aspirin. 生活緊張會耗盡你體內的維生素c,正如吸煙、飲酒、服用某些藥物(包括阿斯匹林)一樣。
至於介詞與形容詞、動詞、名詞的搭配以及複合介詞(又稱複雜介詞)、介詞片語與從句的變換則涉及更多的語法內容。

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